Cases reported "Heart Arrest"

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1/35. Bilateral vertebral artery occlusion following cervical spine trauma--case report.

    A 41-year-old female presented with a rare case of bilateral vertebral artery occlusion following C5-6 cervical spine subluxation after a fall of 30 feet. Digital subtraction angiography showed occlusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries. Unlocking of the facet joint, posterior wiring with iliac crest grafting, and anterior fusion were performed. The patient died on the 3rd day after the operation. This type of injury has a grim prognosis with less than a third of the patients achieving a good outcome.
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2/35. Fatal cardiac arrhythmia after infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide-cryopreserved hematopoietic stem cells in a patient with severe primary cardiac amyloidosis and end-stage renal failure.

    amyloidosis (AL) is a rapidly fatal plasma cell dyscrasia causing progressive multiorgan failure. Recently, substantial improvement of survival was reported following high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) rescue. We describe a patient with AL with severe cardiac and renal involvement who received high-dose melphalan followed by fractioned autologous PBSC transplantation (455 ml on day 1 and 350 ml on day 2). Immediately after the second infusion of the PBSCs, life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias occurred and, despite intensive treatment, the patient died less than 24 h later. The infusion of cryopreserved PBSCs may be associated with complications, including cardiac toxicity. dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the most frequently used cryopreservation agent. In the present case, we suggest that DMSO could have played an important role in causing the fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The mechanisms of the cardiovascular effects of DMSO and the possible preventive measures are discussed. Given the poor prognosis of AL and the promising results of dose-intensive chemotherapy with autologous PBSC transplantation, careful patient selection and intensive monitoring are mandatory in order to further pursue this therapeutic approach.
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3/35. Prognostic value of evoked potentials and sleep recordings in the prolonged comatose state of children. Preliminary data.

    OBJECTIVES: sleep recordings and evoked potentials (EPs) were used in five comatose children to evaluate their predictive value for outcome following a severe comatose state. methods AND SUBJECTS: The protocol included EEG, Brainstem Evoked Responses (BERs), Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and polysomnography. From 10 to 15 days post-coma (D10 to D15), EEG and clinical examinations were carried out every second day, then one day in four from 15 to 30 days post-coma (D15 to D30), and one day in seven from D30 to six months (M6). evoked potentials and polysomnography were recorded on D10-D15 or D30 in the second month (M2) and in M6. Of the five children, three were in anoxic coma and two in traumatic coma. All had extensive lesions and a glasgow coma scale (GCS) score of less than five. The results of the EEG, polysomnographic and EP recordings were compared to the clinical outcome. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the three anoxic comas we observed BER abnormalities and the absence of SEP N20 associated with wide cortical lesions with brainstem extension. sleep recordings showed major alterations of the wake-sleep cycle without any improvement in M6. Abnormalities included loss of the normal REM-sleep pattern associated with alteration of NREM sleep and periods of increase in motor activity without EEG arousal. This sleep pattern appeared to be associated with involvement of the brainstem. In the two traumatic comas, alterations of the early cortical SEP responses were less severe and the BERs were normal. Some sleep spindles were observed as well as the persistence of sleep cycles in the first weeks post-coma. The combined use of EEG, EPs and polysomnography improved the outcome prediction in comparison with the use of just one modality. EPs and sleep recordings were far superior to clinical evaluation and to GCS in the appreciation of the functional status of comatose children. The reappearance of sleep patterns is considered to be of favorable prognosis for outcome of the coma state, as is the presence of sleep spindles in post-trauma coma. This study showed that EPs and sleep recordings help to further distinguish between patients with good or bad outcomes.
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4/35. Beneficial effects of vasopressin in prolonged pediatric cardiac arrest: a case series.

    Children who suffer cardiac arrest have a poor prognosis. Based on laboratory animal studies and clinical data in adults, vasopressin is an exciting new vasopressor treatment modality during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In particular, vasopressin has resulted in short term resuscitation benefits as a "rescue" pressor agent in the setting of prolonged out-of-hospital CPR for ventricular fibrillation in adults. This retrospective series presents the first evidence for resuscitation benefit of bolus vasopressin therapy in the specific setting of pediatric cardiac arrest. All episodes of CPR initiated in a 120-bed tertiary care children's hospital over a three-year period (1997-2000) were reviewed. Four children in the pediatric ICU received vasopressin boluses as rescue therapy during six cardiac arrest events, following failure of conventional CPR, advanced life support, and epinephrine vasopressor therapy. Return of spontaneous circulation for greater than 60 min occurred in three of four patients (75%) and in four of six CPR events (66%) following vasopressin administration. Two of four vasopressin recipients survived >24 h; one survived to hospital discharge and one had withdrawal of supportive therapies following family discussion. Our observations are AHA level 5 (retrospective case series) evidence that vasopressin administration may be beneficial during prolonged pediatric cardiac arrest. Such reports should pave the way for prospective clinical trials comparing vasopressor medications in the setting of pediatric cardiac arrest.
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5/35. Neurological outcome prediction in a cardiorespiratory arrest survivor.

    Outcome prediction of neurological recovery in an unconscious survivor of cardiorespiratory arrest is difficult and uncertain. We describe the case of a 25-yr-old post-arrest survivor who made a remarkable neurological improvement despite a seemingly hopeless prognosis. Conventional clinical and neurophysiological assessments need to be interpreted with care in the presence of uncontrolled seizure activity and sedative medications. The measurement of biochemical markers in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid may be useful in helping the clinician to arrive at a more accurate neurological outcome prediction.
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6/35. safety of thrombolysis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    The prognosis is generally poor for patients who experience a cardiac arrest. The most common causes of sudden cardiac arrest are massive pulmonary embolism (PE) and acute myocardial infarction (MI). While thrombolysis is a first-line treatment option in massive PE and acute MI, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been regarded as a relative contraindication for thrombolysis because of the anticipated bleeding risk caused by traumatic cardiocompressions. However, an increasing number of case reports and clinical studies on thrombolysis during and after CPR highlight an increased frequency of the return of spontaneous circulation and a better neurological outcome of surviving patients. These effects are mainly due to the thrombolysis of macroscopic blood clots and the amelioration of microcirculatory reperfusion.This article reviews case reports and clinical studies of thrombolysis during and shortly after CPR in order to estimate the risk of severe bleeding events caused by CPR in association with thrombolysis compared with CPR without thrombolysis.Although thrombolysis per se can cause severe and potentially fatal haemorrhage, there is no evidence that severe bleeding events occur more often when thrombolysis is combined with cardiocompressions. In addition, by far the majority of bleeding complications can be treated effectively. Thus, in many cases, the possible benefit of thrombolysis during CPR seems to outweigh the potential risks. However, there may be a publication bias in some case reports and studies towards reporting successful rather than unsuccessful CPRs. In addition, not enough controlled clinical trials have yet been conducted. Therefore, data from large randomised, multicentre studies are needed to definitely answer the question of the relationship between safety and efficacy of this promising treatment option.We conclude that the currently available data do not indicate that thrombolysis contributes to a significant increase in bleeding complications when administered during CPR.
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7/35. Sequential change of heterogeneous cerebral blood blow patterns after diffuse brain ischemia.

    In order to provide an insight into the basic nature of ischemic brain injury, we sequentially studied cerebral blood flow with [99mTc]hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime single photon emission computed tomography (CBF imaging) in a patient with diffuse brain ischemia due to prolonged cardiac arrest. On the 10th postarrest day, concentrated blood flow over superior-medial portion of the occipital lobe was demonstrated. On the 18th postarrest day, the same region became high density on a CT scan, while the concentrated flow on the CBF imaging had diminished. Thus, an abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) pattern preceded the density change on CT scan. On the 23rd postarrest day, remarkably concentrated flow over the brainstem was demonstrated. This might have illustrated the reduced metabolic demand of the damaged tissue over the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres with relative preservation of brainstem perfusion. In patients with diffuse brain ischemia, a CBF imaging may be a useful tool for clarifying pathological process and prognosis.
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8/35. Prolonged asystole during head-up tilt table testing after beta blockade.

    Neurally mediated vasodepressor syncope is a common clinical problem. The diagnosis is generally associated with a benign prognosis, however, a less common "malignant" form has been identified. head-up tilt table testing is helpful in the confirmation of the diagnosis of neurally mediated vasodepressor syncope and may be useful in the selection of therapy. One form of therapy commonly used is beta blockade. In this case report we describe a patient with neurally mediated vasodepressor syncope who developed asystole during head-up tilt table testing after treatment with a beta blocker.
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9/35. Is magnetic resonance spectroscopy superior to conventional diagnostic tools in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy?

    Anoxic brain injury carries a poor prognosis. Therefore, a diagnostic tool sensitive enough to predict its outcome is needed. The authors describe the case of a 51-year-old woman who suffered cardiorespiratory arrest. electroencephalography, somatosensory evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging did not prove to be useful in establishing a definitive prognosis. magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated the presence of significant neuronal loss in the cortex and cerebellum and was the only diagnostic procedure closely associated with this patient's prognosis.
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10/35. Tenecteplase and return of spontaneous circulation after refractory cardiopulmonary arrest.

    Even with the benefit of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the prognosis of cardiac arrest remains poor. Multiple case series describe survival with the use of thrombolytic therapy for refractory cardiac arrest. Presumably thrombolysis treats that subset of cardiac arrest cases resulting from fulminant pulmonary embolism, or perhaps massive myocardial infarctions. Published reports to date have dealt exclusively with streptokinase, urokinase, reteplase, or recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. The authors report the first case of return of spontaneous circulation with the administration of tenecteplase. Tenecteplase is a recently developed reengineered isomer of tissue plasminogen activator that possesses many properties of the ideal cardiac arrest thrombolytic agent. It is bolus dosed, stable at room temperature before reconstitution, and is compatible with most other advanced cardiac life support medications. Because of clinical equivalency and its logistical advantages, tenecteplase should be evaluated as an alternative to other thrombolytics in future trials involving cardiac arrest.
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