Cases reported "Heart Arrest"

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1/33. Postictal central apnea as a cause of SUDEP: evidence from near-SUDEP incident.

    While undergoing video-EEG monitoring, a 20-year-old woman had a 56-second convulsive seizure, after which she developed persistent apnea. The rhythm of the electrocardiogram complexes was unimpaired for approximately 10 seconds, after which it gradually and progressively slowed until it stopped 57 seconds later. Evaluation after successful cardio-respiratory resuscitation showed no evidence of airway obstruction or pulmonary edema. The patient had a previous cardio-respiratory arrest after a complex partial seizure without secondary generalization. Although epileptic seizures are known to be potentially arrhythmogenic to the heart, our observations strongly suggest that one probable mechanism of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy is the marked central suppression of respiratory activity after seizures.
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ranking = 1
keywords = arrhythmogenic
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2/33. Cardiopulmonary arrest in pregnancy: the role of caesarean section in the resuscitative protocol.

    A 36-year-old black multipara at 32 weeks gestation was referred with apparent peripartal cardiomyopathy. Upon arrival, she was found to be in pulmonary edema; and shortly thereafter developed cardiopulmonary arrest. She failed to respond to initial attempts at cardiopulmonary resuscitation but subsequently responded after Caesarean section and pericardiocentesis. This case exemplifies the unique aspects of performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a gravid female in the latter part of pregnancy and that Caesarean section should be considered an integral part of the resuscitative protocol when standard protocols fail.
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ranking = 0.039670424930035
keywords = cardiomyopathy
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3/33. arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia in the elderly.

    arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a form of cardiomyopathy characterized by fibrofatty infiltration of the right ventricle that leads to cardiac arrhythmias, usually sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. ARVD typically becomes recognized in young adults. The authors report a case of an octogenarian in whom third-degree atrioventricular block, low cardiac output syndrome, and failure to capture the pacer stimuli developed. ARVD was diagnosed at autopsy based on fibrofatty replacement of the right ventricle. To date, this case represents the oldest patient ever diagnosed with ARVD reported in the literature.
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ranking = 24.171245726212
keywords = ventricular dysplasia, right ventricular dysplasia, cardiomyopathy, dysplasia
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4/33. Abnormal His-Purkinje system conduction leading to complete atrioventricular block in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a report of 3 cases.

    This case report describes three hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with abnormal His-Purkinje conduction and complete atrioventricular block with attacks of syncope and cardiopulmonary arrest. Although arrhythmias are common in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, complete atrioventricular block is very rare. Prolonged QRS duration and abnormal His-Purkinje system conduction may result in complete atrioventricular block.
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ranking = 0.23802254958021
keywords = cardiomyopathy
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5/33. Elevated defibrillation threshold with venlafaxine therapy.

    depression is a common comorbidity in patients with heart failure or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). A 35-year-old woman with depression, nonischemic cardiomyopathy, and a history of cardiac arrest had an ICD implanted. During initial testing, the device failed to internally defibrillate the patient. Venlafaxine, an antidepressant with cardiac sodium channel blocking activity, was identified as a potential contributor to her elevated defibrillation threshold. After the venlafaxine was discontinued, the ICD was able to successfully internally defibrillate the patient. Clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse drug-device interaction. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of venlafaxine therapy in patients with ICDs.
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ranking = 0.039670424930035
keywords = cardiomyopathy
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6/33. Increased risk for cardiorespiratory failure associated with the A3302G mutation in the mitochondrial dna encoded tRNALeu(UUR) gene.

    Screening the mitochondrial dna of a 64-year-old woman with mitochondrial myopathy revealed 76% of the tRNA(Leu(UUR)) A3302G mutation in muscle. Muscle of her affected son carried 96% mutated mitochondrial dna. Both patients were biopsied twice, showing isolated complex I deficiency in the son's first biopsy, additional increased (within normal range) complex II III activities in his second biopsy, combined complex I, II III deficiency in mothers first biopsy and additional complex IV deficiency in her second biopsy. After a stay in the mountains, the son died of cardiac arrhythmia. The A3302G mutation has been reported before and is associated with mitochondrial myopathy and cardiorespiratory failure. Pathogenesis is explained by abnormal mtRNA processing, which was also reported for the adjacent C3303T mutation associated with cardiomyopathy and/or skeletal myopathy. Our findings suggest that a high mutation load of the A3302G mutation can lead to fatal cardiorespiratory failure, likely triggered by low environmental oxygen pressure and exercise.
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ranking = 0.039670424930035
keywords = cardiomyopathy
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7/33. Severe cardiac arrhythmias in young patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Cardiac tachyarrhythmias have rarely been studied in young patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). The authors observed major cardiac rhythm disturbances in 11 patients aged 10 to 18 years. Tachyarrhythmic events were more frequent than impulse conduction disorders. Wide variations in CTG expansion were observed among the population. Since physical exercise was a prominent arrhythmogenic factor, systematic exercise tests with EKG monitoring may be indicated in young patients with DM1.
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ranking = 1
keywords = arrhythmogenic
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8/33. Spontaneous dissection and rupture of common iliac artery in a patient with fibromuscular dysplasia: a case report and review of the literature on iliac artery dissections secondary to fibromuscular dysplasia.

    Spontaneous dissection and rupture of the iliac artery is an unusual finding in patients with fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD). We report the case of a patient with FMD who required emergent surgery because of rupture of an iliac artery dissection, and review 9 previously reported cases of iliac artery dissection associated with FMD. A 30-year-old man had abdominal pain, and went into shock. Angiograms revealed dissection of the left common iliac artery with extravasation. At emergent surgery the rupture site was in the proximal left common iliac artery and extended to the left external iliac artery. Interposition of the diseased artery with a Dacron graft was attempted, but cardiac arrest occurred, and resuscitation was unsuccessful. Pathologic examination showed typical characteristics of diffuse medial FMD. Ten cases (5 male and 5 female patients), including the present case, with dissection of iliac arteries associated with FMD have been reported. Median patient age was 45 years (range, 29-56 years). Three of the 10 patients had acute onset of symptoms, and the remainder had gradual development of intermittent claudication or groin pain. Only the present case had evidence of rupture. The site of dissection was in the external iliac artery in 8 patients and the common iliac artery in 2 patients. Anatomic bypass or interposition of the diseased artery was performed in 8 patients; the others received conservative treatment. There was no mortality in the 9 previously reported cases. Fatal acute dissection and rupture of the common iliac artery occurred in a patient with FMD, even though the clinical course of this disease is relatively benign. FMD should be considered the cause of dissection and rupture of the iliac artery in a patient with symptoms but of non-atherosclerotic age.
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ranking = 0.0091226701135389
keywords = dysplasia
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9/33. Ventricular arrhythmia in the X-linked cardiomyopathy barth syndrome.

    barth syndrome is an X-linked disorder characterized by dilated cardiomyopathy, cyclic neutropenia, skeletal myopathy, abnormal mitochondria, and growth deficiency. The primary defect is a mutation in the TAZ gene on the x chromosome at Xq28, resulting in abnormal phospholipid biosynthesis and cardiolipin deficiency. To date, there has been no systematic evaluation of the cardiac phenotype. We report five cases of cardiac arrest and/or placement of an internal cardiac defibrillator with documented ventricular arrhythmia. We suggest that ventricular arrhythmia is part of the primary phenotype of the disorder and that patients should be screened accordingly.
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ranking = 0.19835212465018
keywords = cardiomyopathy
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10/33. Resuscitation from adrenaline resistant electro-mechanical dissociation facilitated by levosimendan in a young man with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    A 32-year-old man with severe congestive heart failure due to idiopathic cardiomyopathy developed ventricular tachycardia followed by electro-mechanical dissociation. High doses of conventional inotropic medications failed to restore haemodynamics. The additional infusion of levosimendan in conjunction with external chest compressions for 2.5 h restored haemodynamics, followed by complete recovery, including normal neurological function. The anti-stunning properties of levosimendan probably attenuated post-ischaemic myocardial dysfunction and helped to restore normal cardiac output.
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ranking = 0.19835212465018
keywords = cardiomyopathy
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