Cases reported "Heart Arrest"

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11/1289. Neurally mediated syncope in 2 patients with extracardiac disease.

    We describe the cases of 2 patients with repetitive episodes of syncope with profound bradycardia and hypotension. In both patients, the symptoms were initially thought to be neurally mediated and idiopathic but were ultimately determined to be triggered by serious underlying pathologic processes: a massive and locally invasive tumor of the hypopharynx in 1 patient and a gangrenous gallbladder in the other. Appropriate treatment resulted in a resolution of this syndrome in both patients. These cases emphasize the importance of an appropriate evaluation and broad differential diagnoses for patients with severe bradycardia and hypotension. ( info)

12/1289. Bilateral vertebral artery occlusion following cervical spine trauma--case report.

    A 41-year-old female presented with a rare case of bilateral vertebral artery occlusion following C5-6 cervical spine subluxation after a fall of 30 feet. Digital subtraction angiography showed occlusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries. Unlocking of the facet joint, posterior wiring with iliac crest grafting, and anterior fusion were performed. The patient died on the 3rd day after the operation. This type of injury has a grim prognosis with less than a third of the patients achieving a good outcome. ( info)

13/1289. Expeditious diagnosis of primary prosthetic valve failure.

    Primary prosthetic valve failure is a catastrophic complication of prosthetic valves. Expeditious diagnosis of this complication is crucial because survival time is minutes to hours after valvular dysfunction. The only life-saving therapy for primary prosthetic valve failure is immediate surgical intervention for valve replacement. Because primary prosthetic valve failure rarely occurs, most physicians do not have experience with such patients and appropriate diagnosis and management may be delayed. A case is presented of a patient with primary prosthetic valve failure. This case illustrates how rapidly such a patient can deteriorate. This report discusses how recognition of key findings on history, physical examination, and plain chest radiography can lead to a rapid diagnosis. ( info)

14/1289. Successful extracorporeal lung assist (ECLA) for a patient with severe asthma and cardiac arrest.

    A 20-year-old male had a severe asthma attack complicated by a cardiac arrest despite maximal conventional therapy including mechanical ventilation. He was treated successfully with emergency veno-arterial Extra-corporeal lung Assist started after 30 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We believe that ECLA is a life-saving measure for intractable asthma and cardiac arrest. ( info)

15/1289. Cardiac syncope secondary to glossopharyngeal neuralgia--effectively treated with carbamazepine.

    A 64-year-old male with glossopharyngeal neuralgia, cardiac asystole and grand mal seizures has been relieved of his attacks by intake of 400 mg of carbamazepine per day over a 4-year period. Simultaneous EEG-EKG recordings before and after drinking water document the diagnosis. ( info)

16/1289. Successful resuscitation of a child with severe hypothermia after cardiac arrest of 88 minutes.

    A 4-year-old boy broke through the ice of a frozen lake and drowned. The boy was extricated from the icy water by a rescue helicopter that was dispatched shortly after the incident. Although the boy was severely hypothermic, no cardiac response could be induced with field resuscitation measures, including intubation, ventilation, suction, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. On admission, the primary findings included fixed, nonreacting pupils and asystole. The first core temperature measured was 19.8 degrees C (67.6 degrees F). During active, external warming, the first ventricular beats were observed 20 minutes after admission, and changed 10 minutes later to a sinus rhythm. Continuous monitoring included repeated arterial blood gas and electrolyte tests; prophylaxis for cerebral edema was performed with hyperventilation and administration of sodium Brevimytal and dexamethasone. Seventy minutes after admission, hemodynamics stabilized and the boy was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), where active external warming was continued to raise the core temperature at a rate of 1 degree C/hour. adult respiratory distress syndrome developed, and the boy had to be ventilated in the PICU for 10 days. He was discharged home after another two weeks. He recovered fully. The rapid heat loss with the induction of severe hypothermia (< 20 degrees C; 68 degrees F) was the main reason for survival in this rare event of a patient with cardiac arrest lasting 88 minutes after accidental hypothermia. ( info)

17/1289. Preliminary experience with a percutaneous cardiopulmonary support system.

    Percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass has been introduced to support circulation in critical patients. In our preliminary experience we resuscitated two patients who sustained a prolonged cardiac arrest (52 min. and 31 min.) after coronary angiography and elective cardiac surgery, respectively. Cannulation was achieved percutaneously within 10 min. in both cases. Pump flow ranged from 2 to 31/m. Total support lasted from 52 min. to 180 min.. Both patients were successfully weaned. Patient 1 was declared brain dead and expired 17 days later. Patient 2 was discharged from the hospital and is doing well. Cannulation was attempted in a third patient after 30 min. of cardiac arrest. Despite surgical cut down of the femoral vessels, it was impossible to advance the arterial cannula because of bilateral occlusive disease. We conclude that PCPS is a powerful technique in selected patients to recover a stable cardiac function after prolonged cardiac arrest. ( info)

18/1289. The portable Doppler: practical applications in EMS care.

    The practical application of a new, commercially available, portable Doppler ultrasound device to the operation of a busy city-county emergency department and ambulance service was investigated. An initial evaluation using healthy volunteers confirmed accuracy and reproducibility of the Doppler blood pressure readings comparable to that of auscultatory and palpatory measurement. In selected patients, the Doppler readings correlated well with readings from patients who had intra-arterial lines. When used in several low flow states, such as testing adequacy of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and verification of electromechanical dissociation, the Doppler aided the clinical evaluation and treatment in many cases where traditional methods were useless. The Doppler was also helpful in the evaluation of local arterial injury but this unit was not found sensitive enough for venous disease. Finally, the Doppler enhanced the obtaining of vital signs in the noisy environment of our ambulances. ( info)

19/1289. Metabolic acidosis in restraint-associated cardiac arrest: a case series.

    The mechanism of death in patients struggling against restraints remains a topic of debate. This article presents a series of five patients with restraint-associated cardiac arrest and profound metabolic acidosis. The lowest recorded pH was 6.25; this patient and three others died despite aggressive resuscitation. The survivor's pH was 6.46; this patient subsequently made a good recovery. Struggling against restraints may produce a lactic acidosis. Stimulant drugs such as cocaine may promote further metabolic acidosis and impair normal behavioral regulatory responses. Restrictive positioning of combative patients may impede appropriate respiratory compensation for this acidemia. Public safety personnel and emergency providers must be aware of the life threat to combative patients and be careful with restraint techniques. Further investigation of sedative agents and buffering therapy for this select patient group is suggested. ( info)

20/1289. Implantation of permanent dual chamber pacemaker in a pregnant woman by transesophageal echocardiographic guidance.

    A 37-year-old woman complained of fatigue and dizziness because of intermittent sinus arrest and asystole up to 5.2 seconds. She was 3 months into her pregnancy and a dual chamber permanent pacemaker was implanted by transesophageal echocardiographic guidance. ( info)
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