Cases reported "Heart Block"

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11/169. DDD pacing and interatrial conduction block: importance of optimal AV interval setting.

    The case of a 83-year-old patient undergoing DDD pacemaker implantation for sick sinus syndrome with postimplant detection of advanced interatrial conduction block is described. At nominal AV interval programming values (175 ms), absence of P wave following an atrial spike was observed, and the presence of an interatrial conduction disturbance was demonstrated by a Doppler transmitral flow pattern analysis and transesophageal ECG recording. AV interval lengthening up to 300 ms resulted in proper timing of atrial and ventricular contractions. Awaiting for conclusive data about biatrial pacing, interatrial conduction blocks can be managed in some cases by proper programming of conventional DDD systems.
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12/169. A case of fetal complete heart block recorded by magnetocardiography, ultrasonography and direct fetal electrocardiography.

    Fetal magnetocardiograms (FMCGs) were recorded in a case of fetal complete heart block (CHB) from the 30th to the 37th week of gestation using the multichannel SQUID system (Hitachi, japan). M-mode ultrasonography and direct fetal electrocardiography using needle electrodes revealed fetal CHB. We identified independent fetal P-waves and QRS complexes in the FMCG recorded in the 32nd week of gestation when the fetal atriums were close to the FMCG sensor. We also recorded FMCG P-waves in the 37th week of gestation when the fetal heart was larger. fetal heart position and size are important for obtaining a useful FMCG. To establish FMCG as a diagnostic tool of fetal arrhythmia, comparative studies with FECG are needed.
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13/169. Late occurrence of heart block after radiofrequency catheter ablation of the septal region: clinical follow-up and outcome.

    INTRODUCTION: There are few data regarding the occurrence of delayed heart block at least 24 hours after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of AV nodal reentry or posteroseptal accessory pathways (APs). We investigated the late occurrence of heart block in this population, the clinical outcome, and whether findings at electrophysiologic study could have predicted its development. methods AND RESULTS: Two of 418 patients with AV nodal reentry undergoing RFCA using a posterior approach and 1 of 54 patients with RFCA of a posteroseptal AP developed late heart block. Anterograde and retrograde AV nodal conduction before and after RFCA were normal. patients received 12, 15, and 32 RFCA lesions, respectively, using a mean maximum power of 44 W. The RFCA sites were the posterior septum for posteroseptal AP and the posterior and mid-septum for patients with AV nodal reentry, with no His electrogram ever recorded at the ablation site. During RFCA, junctional tachycardia occurred with 1:1 VA conduction in the patient with a posteroseptal AP, but occasional intermittent single retrograde blocked complexes were present in both patients with AV nodal reentry. No rapid junctional tachycardia or >1 consecutive retrograde blocked complex was ever observed during RFCA. Persistent high-degree AV block with junctional escape developed 2 days after RFCA in the posteroseptal AP patient. A permanent pacemaker was implanted, and normal conduction was noted 16 days after RFCA. Both patients with AV nodal reentry complained of fatigue, mainly on exertion, 3 to 4 days after RFCA, and ECG-documented exercise-induced variable AV block was obtained. Because heart block resolved in our initial patient, a prolonged monitoring period was allowed. Symptoms disappeared at 13 and 8 days, and a follow-up treadmill test showed normal PR interval and no heart block. No recurrence of heart block has been seen in any of these three patients. CONCLUSION: Late unexpected heart block after RFCA of AV nodal reentry and posteroseptal AP is rare, often resolves uneventfully in 1 to 2 weeks, and no specific electrophysiologic findings predicted its occurrence. Prolonged clinical observation is preferable to immediate pacemaker implantation in such patients.
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14/169. Autonomic effects of radiofrequency catheter ablation.

    Radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation has become the treatment of choice for a variety of supraventricular tachycardias. Autonomic dysfunction may occur during application of RF current; these abnormalities resolve quickly when current delivery is terminated. We present a case of sinus node arrest and AV block in a 69-year-old woman induced by RF catheter ablation of an AV nodal slow pathway. The proposed mechanisms are a Bezold-Jarisch-like phenomenon or paradoxical activation of cardiac C fibres by direct neural sympathetic stimulation or RF-induced myocardial injury. Based on a review of previously published reports, autonomic effects of RF ablation are discussed.
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15/169. Atrial pacing during radiofrequency ablation of junctional ectopic tachycardia--a useful technique for avoiding atrioventricular bloc.

    Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) was performed on a 5-year-old boy with congenital junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) that was refractory to medical management. Because of the lack of retrograde atrial depolarization during tachycardia, radiofrequency energy was delivered during atrial overdrive pacing to confirm the presence of preserved atrioventricular (AV) conduction. Although the procedure was complicated by complete right bundle branch block after ablation of the para-Hissian region, the patient regained sinus rhythm accompanied by normal AV conduction. Rapid atrial pacing during RFCA of JET may be safely used to avoid AV block.
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16/169. Unusual ECG responses to exercise stress testing.

    We describe the case of a patient with coronary artery disease who developed transient ST-segment depression, right bundle branch block (RBBB), left anterior hemiblock, ST-segment elevation ST), and "giant" T-waves in her electrocardiogram (ECG), an assortment of ECG patterns heretofore unreported in conjunction with exercise stress testing (EST). The amplitude of the ST was modulated by the superimposed RBBB, as was shown by its augmentation after the abrupt disappearance of RBBB. Following recession of the latter "giant" T-waves, which usually are encountered in the hyperacute phase of myocardial infarction, developed and persisted late in the recovery period. Cardiac enzymes after EST were negative, and arteriography revealed a stenotic left anterior descending coronary artery. The present case indicates that a variety of ECG expressions of severe transmural ischemia or myocardial infarction can also be manifest in the course of EST; this also suggests a common pathophysiological mechanism in severe EST-triggered ischemia and the early phase of myocardial infarction.
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17/169. Delayed restoration of atrioventricular synchrony with beat-to-beat mode switch.

    This case report describes a patient with complete AV block and a VDD pacemaker who experienced repetitive episodes of symptomatic bradycardia. Episodes occurred due to activation of an automatic beat-to-beat mode switch algorithm. After mode switch to VDI operation, the pacemaker failed to immediately switch back to AV synchronous pacing when regular sinus rhythm (> or = 100 beats per minute) resumed despite adequate P wave sensing. dizziness was felt for up to several minutes of asynchronous pacing at the lower rate limit until VDD mode was restored. Episodes were completely eliminated by programming the mode switch function from an automatic beat-to-beat algorithm to a fixed rate algorithm.
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18/169. Radiofrequency treatment of hepatic neoplasms in patients with permanent pacemakers.

    Clinicians who provide care for patients with implantable devices for rhythm management, ie, pacemakers and internal cardioverter defibrillators, must be aware of sources of interference that could affect device function. Intracardiac radiofrequency is a recognized source of potential interference. However, radiofrequency to extracardiac sites that are relatively close to the implanted device has not been investigated thoroughly. We present 2 patients with permanent pacemakers undergoing intrahepatic radiofrequency for the treatment of metastatic disease. No interference was documented in either patient. Additional in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to determine definite clinical guidelines for such patients.
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19/169. Transient complete atrioventricular block during transcatheter ablation of a left inferoparaseptal anomalous pathway in a patient with a history of previous surgical repair of ventricular septal defect.

    This case describes a young woman with a manifest left inferoparaseptal accessory pathway and previous history of surgical repair of a defect of the ventricular inlet septum in whom a transient complete AV block occurred during radiofrequency ablation performed from the coronary sinus. The presence of a preexisting surgery related AV block unmasked by anomalous pathway ablation is the more reliable explanation for this case.
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20/169. Electroanatomic substrate of idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia: unidirectional block and macroreentry within the purkinje network.

    BACKGROUND: An abnormal potential (retroPP) from the left posterior Purkinje network has been demonstrated during sinus rhythm (SR) in some patients with idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia (ILVT). We hypothesized that this potential can specifically be identified and be a critical substrate for ILVT. methods AND RESULTS: In 9 patients with ILVT and 6 control patients who underwent mapping of the left ventricle during SR using 3-dimensional electroanatomic mapping, an area with retroPP was found within the posterior Purkinje fiber network only in patients with ILVT. The earliest and latest retroPP was 185.4 /-57.4 and 465.2 /-37.3 ms after Purkinje potential; in the other patient with ILVT, an entire left ventricle mapping demonstrated a slow conduction area and passive retrograde activation along the posterior fascicle during ILVT. ILVT was noninducible in 3 patients after SR mapping. Diastolic potentials critical for ILVT during ILVT coincided with the earliest retroPP during SR in 7 patients. Mechanical termination of ILVT occurred in 5 patients. A single radiofrequency pulse was applied at the site with mechanical translation in 5 patients and the site with diastolic potential in 2 patients, and 3 radiofrequency pulses were delivered to the site with the earliest retroPP in the other 3 patients without inducible ILVT after SR mapping. No ILVT was inducible during control stimulation, and none recurred during follow-up of 9.1 /-5.1 months. CONCLUSION: In patients with ILVT, abnormal retroPP within the posterior Purkinje fiber network is a common finding. The earliest retroPP critical for ILVT substrate can be used for guiding successful ablation.
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