Cases reported "Heart Diseases"

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1/24. Spontaneous intramural atrial hematoma presenting as a left atrial mass.

    We describe an unusual case of spontaneously occurring intramural atrial hematoma with no communication with either atrium. The diagnosis of left atrial mass was made from transthoracic echocardiography. Subsequent examination with transesophageal echocardiography confirmed a large mass essentially filling the whole left atrium but failed to provide an etiologic diagnosis, which was eventually made at surgery.
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2/24. Iatrogenic main pulmonary artery-left atrial fistula in a child.

    A 14-month-old boy who underwent operation for ventricular septal defect patch closure and debanding of the pulmonary artery presented with arterial desaturation in the early postoperative period. angiography confirmed the echocardiographic findings of hemodynamically significant main pulmonary artery-left atrial fistula. This communication was successfully closed surgically.
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3/24. Iatrogenic left ventricular-right atrial fistula following mitral valve replacement and tricuspid annuloplasty: diagnosis by transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography.

    Acquired left ventricle-to-right atrium communications are a known complication of valvular heart surgery. Previous reports have described the clinical features and diagnosis using cardiac catheterization. We report two cases of acquired left ventricle-to-right atrium fistula following mitral valve replacement. Particular emphasis is placed on the diagnosis using transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, obviating the need for cardiac catheterization before repair.
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4/24. Direct communication between right pulmonary artery and left atrium.

    A case of direct communication between right pulmonary artery and left atrium is reported. The diagnosis was made before surgical correction. A surgical ligation of the fistula resolved the cyanosis of the patient. Selective angiocardiogram of the right pulmonary artery 4 months after surgery revealed no residual shunt. This very rare malformation should be considered in the clinical setting of unexplained cyanosis. This is the number 50 case reported in the literature.
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5/24. Gerbode's defect resulting from infective endocarditis.

    We present a report of a Gerbode's defect (left ventricular-right atrial communication) resulting from bacterial endocarditis in a 63-year-old man. Also presented is a brief overview of the literature and a possible preoperative echocardiographic diagnostic criterion relating to this unusual condition.
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6/24. Percutaneous closure of left ventricular-to-right atrial fistula after prosthetic mitral valve rereplacement using the Amplatzer duct occluder.

    A 70-year-old female with a history of rheumatic heart disease underwent rereplacement of mitral valve mechanical prosthesis in May 2003. Seven months later, she presented with progressive exertional dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and a new holosystolic/diastolic murmur. echocardiography confirmed a large shunt through a fistula in the inferior limbus of the atrial septum with left ventricular-to-right atrial communication. We report the novel use of the Amplatzer duct occluder for closure of the fistulous tract.
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7/24. Cardiac hydatid cysts: echocardiographic findings.

    Cardiac hydatid disease is rare. Many patients are asymptomatic, hence cardiac involvement is often discovered incidentally. Diagnosis is also difficult because of a long period between parasitic infection and the manifestation of disease. rupture of a cardiac cyst is a serious complication. Diagnosis of cardiac hydatid cysts is often made using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) provides details of the cysts. We present the cases of 3 patients with nonspecific symptoms of their endemic parasitic disease. The results of sonographic examinations in all patients strongly suggested the presence of cardiac hydatid cysts. One patient had a cyst in the external surface of the left ventricular apical-lateral wall visualized with TTE and TEE. Parasitic serology was negative. She underwent surgery, which confirmed a cyst located in the pericardium, and then was treated with albendazole. Another patient had a cyst in the left ventricle demonstrated by TTE and TEE and confirmed with serology. color Doppler sonography verified that her cardiac cyst was in communication with the left ventricle. She was not a surgical candidate and was treated with albendazole. The final patient had a septated cyst in the media basilar portion of the interventricular septum demonstrated using TTE, and CT. He refused surgical treatment and albendazole was prescribed. Chest radiographs in 3 patients failed to show the cysts, and serology in 1 patient failed to indicate a hydatid cyst. Follow-up at 1-2 years revealed no recurrence in any patient. In all 3 cases, cysts could be visualized from the subcostal view via echocardiography. Imaging is critical for the early diagnosis, assessment, and follow-up of patients with this disease.
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8/24. Unusual form of coronary artery fistula of left anterior descending and right coronary artery in an adult patient.

    An unusual morphologically tortuous, common fistulous communication of the left anterior descending and right coronary artery with the right ventricle was found in a 55-year-old male patient with severe aortic and mild mitral regurgitation. The angiographic features of this lesion are discussed because of the rarity of this doubly rare coronary artery fistula.
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9/24. Left internal mammary--left ventricular fistula after Vineberg operation.

    This communication presents an unusual complication in a patient who underwent the Vineberg procedure with the formation of an internal mammary to left-ventricular fistula, which caused a new apical diastolic murmur. This represents a previously unreported etiology for the appearance of an apical blowing diastolic murmur.
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10/24. Cardiogastric fistula occurring 9 years after resection of left ventricular aneurysm.

    An 83-year-old man, 9 years after repair of a postinfarction aneurysm of the left ventricle, developed fever, anemia, and congestive heart failure. Extensive evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract revealed no evidence of ulcer disease. While in the hospital, he developed massive hematemesis and melena and died 2 days later. At autopsy, a communication existed between a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm and the stomach to form a cardiogastric fistula. infection of the left ventricular pseudoaneurysm may have precipitated the gastric perforation. This represents an extremely rare late complication of aneurysmectomy procedures and, to our knowledge, is the first case to be reported in the absence of primary gastrointestinal pathology.
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