Cases reported "Heart Diseases"

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1/8. Post-infarction cardiac rupture.

    Three allied conditions are described in this paper: (i) haemopericardium with cardiac rupture (5 cases); (ii) haemopericardium without rupture (2 cases); (iii) pseudoaneurysm (1 case). In the first 2 of these, the significant features were clinical deterioration with shock 3 or more days after infarction, recurrent cardiac pain, cardiac tamponade, and immediate or later ineffectiveness of counterpulsation. An additional feature in the second group was the development of haemopericardium after heparin therapy. In the third group, infarction followed by left ventricular failure and progressive cardiac enlargement was the significant feature. An apical systolic murmur was not present, as a false sac had not been formed. Ante-mortem diagnosis depends upon an appreciation of these features. Without it successful surgery is impossible. There were 4 survivors in this group of 8 patients.
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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2/8. Two- and three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiographic diagnosis of intramyocardial dissecting hematoma after myocardial infarction.

    The echocardiographic findings of an intramyocardial dissecting hematoma that formed after an extensive acute myocardial infarction of the anterior wall of a 42-year- old man are described. Serial transesophageal studies were used to construct 3-dimensional images that clarified the participation of various myocardial layers that surrounded the dissecting hematoma. The patient was successfully treated with intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation and subsequently coronary artery bypass grafting. Intramyocardial dissecting hematoma is a rare complication of acute infarction; differential diagnosis must be made with pseudoaneurysm by establishing integrity of epicardium and with intracavitary thrombosis by identifying the endomyocardial layer surrounding the neoformation and associated wall movement.
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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3/8. Vascular complications of the intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation.

    From September 1994 to December 2002, 6,274 cardiosurgery operations were performed at the Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital, Hradec Kralove, czech republic. Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) was applied in 192 cases (3.1%). From this group of 192 counterpulsated patients 103 were successfully treated (53.6%); 89 counterpulsated patients (46.4%) died from the surgical procedure (30-day mortality rate). In 5 cases (2.6%) from the group of 192, the IABP was introduced before the operation. Ischemic changes of the limb were observed in 11 cases (5.7%). Significant bleeding occurred at the site of puncture in 6 cases (3.1%). dissection of the femoral and iliac arteries was found in 2 patients (1.0%), perforation of the iliac artery in 1 case (0.5%). In 2 cases (1.0%) the balloon was led into the venous system. In case report No. 1 an introduction of the balloon under a sclerotic plaque of the descending aorta and iliac artery is described. In case report No. 2 a placement of the balloon in the venous bloodstream is reported.
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ranking = 5
keywords = counterpulsation
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4/8. nursing implication for pulmonary artery balloon counterpulsation: a treatment for right ventricular dysfunction after cardiac surgery.

    PPRVD is a phenomenon frequently observed in the operating room. Its development can be attributed to a single or many factors associated with cardiac operation. Namely, its presence is precipated by injury to the RV myocardium or changes in the normal hemodynamic functions of the RV. While PPRVD occurs in isolation, it is usually seen with concomitant LV dysfunction. When conventional medical management of LV dysfunction does not improve yet unmasks RV dysfunction, some type of ventricular assist device to support RV dysfunction may be needed to wean patients from cardiopulmonary bypass such as PABC. PABC has been demonstrated to be useful in the management of mild to moderate PPRVD and weaning from CPB. Severe PPRVD has not been demonstrated to benefit from PABC. The major concern in managing PPRVD is the lack of quantifiable criteria for determining levels of RV injury. research is continuing in this area. Likewise, investigations are under way to develop a transvenous PABC catheter. This catheter would allow for increased PABC use as it would not require surgical placement or removal. The present PABC model could potentially be used in any hospital that uses conventional intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation. The patient presented in this case was cared for in a 350-bed community hospital in the Northeast section of the united states. A PABC patient can present a unique nursing challenge. It is hoped that this article will assist nurses in the future management of these patients.
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ranking = 5
keywords = counterpulsation
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5/8. Profound reversible myocardial depression after anaphylaxis.

    Profound myocardial depression developed in 2 patients after severe anaphylactic reactions following the induction of anaesthesia in 1 case and a bee-sting in the other. Neither patient had pre-existent cardiac disease. In both patients haemodynamic assessment, radionuclide ventriculography, and two-dimensional echocardiography confirmed the clinical impression of profound systolic myocardial dysfunction. Haemodynamic stability was attained by intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, which was probably life-saving in both cases. Cardiac function improved rapidly although some contractile depression persisted for several days. At follow-up both patients had normal cardiac function with no evidence of underlying heart disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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6/8. Vascular complications as a result of intra-aortic balloon pumping.

    Intra-aortic balloon conterpulsation (IABP) was used to assist 109 patients with extensive myocardial infarcts, unstable angina, cardiogenic shock, and unstable cardiodynamic states after cardiopulmonary bypass over a six year period. Severe vascular occlusion occurred in three patients (3%) which required an above the knee amputation. Each patient had a long history of smoking. obesity, atherosclerotic disease of the femoral vessels, and extensive coronary artery disease were additional contributing factors. Two of the three patients survived, but both survivors had extensive postoperative myocardial infarctions. A low flow cardiac state and the presence of atherosclerotic changes in the legs must be precipitating factors for the vascular complications. Several possible methods to minimize complications of this nature include 1) angiographic examination of the lower aorta and femoral arteries at the time of cardiac catheterization, 2) frequent monitoring with ultrasound equipment, and 3) use of anticoagulation during and after the period of counterpulsation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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7/8. pulmonary artery balloon counterpulsation for treatment of intraoperative right ventricular failure.

    pulmonary artery balloon counterpulsation was used in 3 patients who underwent open-heart operation for the treatment of acquired cardiac lesions. This form of support was initiated because the patients could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass even with intraaortic balloon counterpulsation and maximal pharmacological support. After pulmonary artery balloon pumping was instituted, cardiopulmonary bypass was successfully terminated in all 3 patients. One of them is alive and well one year after operation.
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ranking = 6
keywords = counterpulsation
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8/8. Successful balloon counterpulsation for right ventricular failure.

    We used pulmonary arterial balloon counterpulsation to treat successfully a patient with severe right ventricular failure following mitral valve replacement. The balloon was placed through a vascular graft sutured as a diverticulum to the main pulmonary artery.
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ranking = 5
keywords = counterpulsation
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