Cases reported "Heart Diseases"

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1/66. An unusual family of benign "X" linked muscular dystrophy with cardiac involvement.

    A family of benign X-linked muscular dystrophy is described. Two of the 3 affected members appear quite representative of Becker's dystrophy. A third shows no pseudohypertrophy, only gross atrophy, affecting proximal and distal muscles and also shows early onset contractures and electrocardiographic abnormalities and is in these ways much more representative of the variety described by Emery and Dreifuss (1966). Two of the cases have distinctly abnormal electrocardiograms with extensive and deep Q waves and abnormal R/S ratios and VI. Both these have shown progression of electrocardiographic abnormalities during a 2-year follow-up. The family is reported to document this very unusual occurrence.
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2/66. T wave lability: a clue for separating the good from the bad, when ugly.

    Non-specific T wave abnormalities have challenged both the clinician and the insurance medical director for decades. Distinction between pathologic and physiologic T wave changes often requires costly and time-consuming diagnostic studies. The literature is reviewed on the subject of T wave manipulation by the oral administration of both potassium and glucose, introducing the concept of T wave lability. Based on this concept, a simple technique is suggested which, in many cases, can safely, expeditiously and inexpensively distinguish between organic and functional T wave changes. When employed in the investigation of asymptomatic insurance applicants with unexplained T wave abnormalities but no known cardiovascular or renal disease, this technique appears to be sufficiently reliable to classify the risk posed by non-specific T wave changes without resorting to a sophisticated, lengthy and costly cardiovascular investigation.
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3/66. Successful lysis of right and left heart thrombus by tissue plasminogen activator.

    tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) was administered to three patients with newly developed intracardiac thrombi. Cases 1 and 2 developed right heart thrombi after radiofrequency ablation for atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia and case 3 had tachycardia-related cardiomyopathy and a left ventricular thrombus. In all three patients, the intracardiac thrombi were successfully eliminated following t-PA therapy without major bleeding complications. These observations suggest that t-PA is effective in lysing new thrombus complicating radiofrequency ablation or heart failure and may be the therapy of choice in these conditions. Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. 49:91-96, 2000.
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ranking = 0.070234526620912
keywords = frequency
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4/66. Heart disease in Friedreich's ataxia: observation of a case for half a century.

    A case of Friedreich's ataxia was followed for 47 years, beginning in 1930; this patient had an abnormal electrocardiogram (flat or inverted T waves in leads II and III with prolonged QT interval) from the very beginning of the onset of neurological symptoms. Cardiac and neurological disturbances progressed slowly but steadily, and the patient died suddenly at the age of 67. The autopsy revealed typical findings of Friedreich's ataxia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with thickened left ventricular wall and myocardial fiber disarray. To the authors' knowledge, this is the longest continuous follow-up study of Friedreich's ataxia, and it will provide invaluable information on the natural history and development of the cardiac and neurological disorders in this condition.
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5/66. Thrombus formation at the site of radiofrequency catheter ablation.

    A 55-year-old woman with a history of resected atrial myxoma with residual patched atrial septal defect (ASD) underwent a successful radiofrequency (RF) ablation of reentry atrial tachycardia. She presented with progressive dyspnea 5 days later. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed a 1-cm right atrial mass attached to the intraatrial septum at the ablation site. Repeat study after anticoagulation for 5 weeks showed complete resolution of the thrombus. Thrombus formation at the site of RF ablation is a potential complication that may require aggressive anticoagulation. patients with patched ASD might be at higher risk.
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ranking = 0.17558631655228
keywords = frequency
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6/66. borrelia infection as a cause of carditis (a long-term study).

    BACKGROUND: Although the frequency of Lyme carditis is not high, it is one of the most challenging conditions in terms of diagnosis. No long-term studies that would help expand our body of knowledge concerning the circumstances of its development and the natural course of this form of Lyme borreliosis (LB), the most widespread anthropozoonosis in Central europe, have been reported to date. AIM: The authors sought to describe and assess the consequences of a less common form of Lyme carditis (LC). An assessment of the following aspects was made: a) the forms, natural history and sequelae of the less common clinical appearances of LC, b) the role of antibiotic therapy with reference to the late manifestations of LB. methods: Three patients were selected from a group of 60 consecutive patients with demonstrated LC during a follow-up period from 1987 to 2000. Patient no. 1 was being followed for myocarditis with frequent ventricular extrasystoles, patient no. 2 for pericarditis, and patient no. 3 for dilated cardiomyopathy as a late manifestation of LB. In addition to routine examination at entry, the patients were subjected to a standard 12-lead ECG, continuous 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring, exercise testing (bicycle ergometry), investigations of antibodies using ELISA and Western blot, investigation of thyroid (T3, T4, TSH tests) and mineral levels. RESULTS: The study showed no significant correlation between the clinical course and levels of specific antibodies. It confirmed the concept that inadequate or no therapy with antibiotics in the initial stage of the disease has a significant effect on the development of late sequelae. CONCLUSION: Based on the long-term treatment of three patients with less common, yet clinically urgent findings, the authors conclude that even a relatively serious clinical course is associated with no major limitations for affected individuals after an interval of several years.
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ranking = 0.035117263310456
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7/66. Contrast harmonic power Doppler imaging of congenital ventricular diverticulum--a case report.

    A case of an 81-year-old woman with a left ventricular diverticulum who underwent myocardial contrast echocardiography is reported. After administration of the contrast agent, a pulsed Doppler flow measurement clearly revealed the biphasic waveform of the ejection flow in the pre-systolic and systolic phase at the ostium of the diverticular cavity. A harmonic power Doppler image showed that part of the diverticulum wall had similar acoustic properties to the ventricular septal wall. Intracardiac blood flow and myocardial perfusion could be clearly evaluated and a ventricular diverticulum was correctly diagnosed using contrast echocardiography.
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8/66. Isolated congenital left ventricular diverticulum in adults.

    Isolated congenital ventricular diverticulum or aneurysm is rare and usually arises from the left ventricle. The presentation of this condition is diverse. We report three cases of isolated congenital left ventricular diverticula. The age range was 17-30 years. Chest X-ray provided the earliest clinical suspicion in these three cases of a cardiac anomaly which was diagnosed by echocardiography and confirmed by angiocardiography. The location of the congenital left ventricular diverticulum was the left ventricular apex in two cases and basal in the other. We conclude that congenital left ventricular diverticulum is a disease of protean presentations. A high index of suspicion is necessary while interpreting chest x-rays and echocardiographs to diagnose congenital left ventricular diverticulum. A contractile accessory chamber of the left ventricle with a narrow neck with or without midline defects and an electrocardiogram without Q waves is consistent with the diagnosis of congenital left ventricular diverticulum.
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9/66. coronary sinus diverticulum with a concealed posteroseptal accessory pathway: a red herring?

    A 21-year-old male presented with episodes of paroxysmal tachycardia mediated via a concealed posteroseptal accessory pathway. He was also found to have a diverticulum of the coronary sinus. However, successful radiofrequency ablation was achieved only endocardially under the mitral annulus and not within the diverticulum.
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ranking = 0.035117263310456
keywords = frequency
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10/66. Prominent R wave in lead V1: electrocardiographic differential diagnosis.

    Tall lead V1 (tall RV1), defined as an R/S ratio equal to or greater than 1, is not an infrequent occurrence in emergency department patients. This electrocardiographic finding exists as a normal variant in only 1% of patients. physicians should therefore be familiar with the differential diagnosis for this important QRS configuration. The electrocardiographic entities which can present with this finding include right bundle branch block, left ventricular ectopy, right ventricular hypertrophy, acute right ventricular dilation (acute right heart strain), type a wolff-parkinson-white syndrome, posterior myocardial infarction, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, progressive muscular dystrophy, dextrocardia, misplaced precordial leads, and normal variant. Various cases are presented to highlight the different causes of the tall RV1.
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