Cases reported "Heart Rupture"

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1/81. Ruptured sinus valsalva with infectious endocarditis: a technique of defect closure with an autologous-xenologous pericardial sandwich patch.

    We report a case of ventricular septal defect with acquired rupture of sinus Valsalva induced by infectious endocarditis. After irrigati on of all infectious tissues, the defect was closed twice using two different patches. One was an autologous pericardial patch from the right ventricle and the other was a composite patch made of an autologous pericardium and axenologous pericardium from the left ventricle. As a result, the xenologous pericardium was sandwiched between autologous pericardiums. We thought that this "sandwiched patch" would compensate for the shortcomings of each type of pericardium and resist left ventricular pressure and infection. Despite the development of antibiotic therapy, infectious endocardit is (IE) is still one of the most difficult disease to cure. In the case of a rupture of sinus Valsalva, because of the rapid spread of infection into any of the cardiac chambers, surgical intervention is necessary. In this report, we describe a case treated successfully.
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2/81. Repair of left ventricular rupture following mitral valve replacement concomitant with left atrial reduction procedure--intracardiac patch and extracardiac buttress suture.

    rupture of the posterior wall of the left ventricle after mitral valve replacement is a dire complication associated with a very high mortality. This study reports a successful repair of type I left ventricular rupture, which occurred after mitral valve replacement concomitant with a left atrial reduction procedure, by combination of an intracardiac patch and an extracardiac buttress suture. In a case such as this, in which hemostasis is quite difficult to establish, this combination technique is particularly effective.
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3/81. Contained rupture of a myocardial abscess in the free wall of the left ventricle.

    Contained rupture of the left ventricle is uncommon; rupture secondary to a myocardial abscess is exceedingly rare. A case is presented of a contained rupture of a myocardial abscess in a patient with staphylococcus aureus septicemia. The rupture was repaired surgically, and the patient survived.
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4/81. Angiosarcoma causing cardiac rupture.

    We report the 7th known case in the literature of cardiac angiosarcoma resulting in cardiac rupture. A 34-year-old woman was admitted presenting chest pain and pericardial effusion. After the patient had been treated for 3 months under the diagnosis of pericarditis of unknown etiology, she became hypotensive. Doppler echocardiography showed increased pericardial effusion and a communication between the right atrium and the pericardial cavity. An emergency operation was undertaken to drain the effusion and explore the etiology. We found the ruptured right atrium and the irregularly shaped tumor extending from the pericardium near the inferior caval vein to the right ventricle. There was no apparent tumor on the right atrium, but its wall was extensively thin, which we replaced with autologous pericardium. The patient died on the 44th postoperative day. Clinical diagnosis of cardiac angiosarcoma is usually very difficult. If Doppler echocardiography demonstrates pericardial effusion and find a ruptured right atrium with or without mass formation, we should suspect cardiac angiosarcoma.
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5/81. Ruptured cardiac hydatid cyst masquerading as acute coronary syndrome: report of a case.

    The case of a 40-year-old man hospitalized for investigation of a doubtful diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome is reported herein. Two-dimensional echocardiography and angiography showed a cardiac cyst localized in the left ventricular apex in close proximity to the left anterior descending coronary artery. Surgery performed with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass revealed that the cyst had ruptured partially into the left ventricle and filled with thrombus. This case is of particular interest because of the rarity of cardiac localization of a hydatid cyst, and the conflict between the severity of the complications that occurred and the absence of correlated symptoms.
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6/81. Left anterior descending coronary artery to right ventricular fistula complicating coronary stenting.

    Coronary artery perforation is a rare complication of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and coronary stenting, most commonly creating a communication between the coronary artery lumen and the pericardial space. We report a case where vessel rupture following stent deployment led to the development of a fistula between the left anterior descending coronary artery and the right ventricle.
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7/81. coronary sinus rupture with retrograde cardioplegia.

    coronary sinus (CS) rupture occurring during retrograde cardioplegia (RCP) is a rare complication. patients with left ventricular hypertrophy are at higher risk for injury to the CS. The patient was a 66-year-old female with hypertension, ischemic cardiomyopathy and dysrhythmias, who had evidence of an anterior wall myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure and angina. During coronary artery bypass surgery, antegrade cardioplegia was initially administered, but aortic insufficiency prevented adequate myocardial cooling. RCP was then administered and the heart cooled appropriately. After approximately 300 ml of blood cardioplegic solution had been given, the CS pressure suddenly dropped from 30 mmHg to zero. RCP administration was stopped, and the surgeon palpated a hematoma over the area of the CS, which later ruptured upon rotation of the heart. A primary repair could not be performed, so a pericardial patch was placed over the area of disruption, which appeared to provide adequate hemostasis. The patient was weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), but began to bleed freely from the CS distal to the pericardial patch. The patient was placed back on CPB to allow further repair of the CS, but the tissues were thin and friable and the ventricle disassociated from the ventricular septum. The situation was deemed not salvageable and further attempts at repair were stopped. The perfusionist should monitor infusion pressures and the CS waveform during RCP delivery. Changes in the waveform may indicate cannula malposition, loss of balloon seal, or, more rarely, CS rupture; such changes should prompt immediate cessation of RCP delivery.
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8/81. Treatment of delayed rupture of the left ventricle after mitral valve replacement.

    rupture of the left ventricle following mitral valve replacement is a catastrophic complication with deadly consequences. We report here the case of a 75-year-old man who underwent elective mitral valve replacement for severe mitral regurgitation. Delayed type 1 rupture of the left ventricle developed 3 hours postoperatively in the intensive care unit. A salvaging maneuver was used, which gained time, allowing reoperation and successful intraventricular repair.
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9/81. mitral valve repair for severe mitral regurgitation caused by endomyocardial biopsy.

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) following endomyocardial biopsy is a rare and severe complication. A 70-year-old man with severe MR due to chordal injury caused by left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy is described. In this patient, a few chordae tendineae of the posterior-median papillary muscle were injured by the biopsy forceps. Due to the chordal rupture, both anterior and posterior leaflets were prolapsed and severe MR developed. MR was successfully treated by artificial chordal replacement using extended polytetrafluoroethylene sutures and ring annuloplasty. This mitral valve repair with artificial chordal replacement was considered suitable to treat MR resulting from iatrogenic chordal injury as the leaflets were not involved in the degenerative process and papillary muscle function was preserved. To avoid MR, the transvenous approach should be used routinely for endomyocardial biopsies; biopsy from the left ventricle is not justified.
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10/81. Use of intraaortic balloon pump in left ventricle rupture after mitral valve replacement.

    Over 6 years of a single surgeon experience, 3 patients had left ventricle rupture following mitral valve replacement, despite preserving the posterior leaflet. The valve was re-replaced on bypass in all patients. Intraaortic balloon pump was inserted electively before coming off bypass. There were no intraoperative deaths, reexploration, or excessive bleeding. An intraaortic balloon pump is an ideal adjuvant to left ventricle repair for ruptured ventricle following mitral valve replacement on cardiopulmonary bypass.
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