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1/103. Arterial switch with internal pulmonary artery banding. A new palliation for TGA and VSD in complex cases.

    In most cases, one stage repair by arterial switch operation (ASO) is the optimal treatment for neonates with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Nevertheless, a ventricular septal defect (VSD) associated with TGA remains a major risk factor for early death and reoperation after complete repair in neonates with complex anatomy. A new palliative approach for such specific cases is proposed. An internal pulmonary artery banding (IPAB), as that already used to palliate other cardiac malformations, is performed in association with ASO instead of VSD closure. At the end of ASO, a circular polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) patch with a 4-mm central hole is oversewn into the neo-pulmonary trunk. We adopted this method in a 17-day-old boy with TGA, VSD, hypoplastic tricuspid valve and diminutive right ventricle. After the operation the child thrived and was doing well without medication. Satisfactory growth of the right ventricle and tricuspid valve was observed by echocardiography during the following months. The patient successfully underwent VSD closure and IPAB removal 2 years after the first procedure. ASO with IPAB could be appropriate in all forms of TGA and VSD in which VSD closure appears too challenging in the neonatal period and in patients with uncertain suitability for biventricular repair. We preferred to use IPAB instead of classic PAB in order to reduce the risk of pulmonary valve damage, pulmonary artery distortion, and above all pulmonary artery dilatation and related coronary compression. In the presented case the strategy as well as IPAB worked according to our expectations.
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2/103. Congenital annular multiple fibrofolliculomas occurring with deformity of the ear and ventricular septal defect.

    We describe a 5-year-old girl who had multiple fibrofolliculomas with an unusual annular configuration, present since birth, localized to the mid-back. She had no family history of similar skin lesions. Examination showed a depigmented patch on her left buttock and other congenital anomalies, i.e. deformity of the auricle of the ear and ventricular septal defect. There has been no previous report of congenital multiple fibrofolliculomas occurring with congenital malformations such as deformity of the auricle of the ear and ventricular septal defect. The congenital occurrence and unusual configuration of the lesions in our patient may suggest a naevoid origin for these tumours.
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3/103. Modified approach to close multiple apical ventricular septal defects.

    The fish-mouth incision of the left ventricular apex is the established incision to access and close apical ventricular septum defect. A long diagonal branch may render this incision dangerous. In such a case, we performed a more anterior incision on the left ventricle, and fashioned a patch to exclude the whole defective area.
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4/103. aortic valve repair after arterial switch operation.

    A patient with transposition of the great arteries and a ventricular septal defect underwent an arterial switch operation 15 months after pulmonary artery banding. At 12 years of age, severe neoaortic valve regurgitation, due to dilated aortic sinuses and poor leaflet coaptation, developed. aortic valve repair involved placement of subcommissural sutures, elliptical excision and tailored reduction of two anterior aortic sinuses, with triangular patch expansion of the proximal ascending aorta. A good result was obtained.
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5/103. Iatrogenic main pulmonary artery-left atrial fistula in a child.

    A 14-month-old boy who underwent operation for ventricular septal defect patch closure and debanding of the pulmonary artery presented with arterial desaturation in the early postoperative period. angiography confirmed the echocardiographic findings of hemodynamically significant main pulmonary artery-left atrial fistula. This communication was successfully closed surgically.
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6/103. Primary repair of complete transposition of the great arteries with complete atrioventricular septal defect.

    We successfully corrected complete transposition of the great arteries associated with complete atrioventricular septal defect in a 50-day-old infant in concomitant arterial switch operation and two-patch repair. The combination of these 2 complex anomalies is very rare, and primary anatomical repair is feasible in such patients.
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7/103. Infective endocarditis affecting both systemic and pulmonary circulations predisposed by a ventricular septal defect.

    A 39-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital presenting persisting fever. An echocardiographic examination showed severe aortic and mitral valve regurgitation with moderate tricuspid regurgitation. Small left-to-right shunt through the ventricular septal defect was identified. Vegetation was also detected on the tricuspid, mitral, and aortic valves. At one month after admission, the patient showed sudden onset of headache and abdominal pain. A computed tomographic scan demonstrated cerebral and splenic infarction. A pulmonary perfusion scintigram demonstrated perfusion defects in left-S1 and right-S6 regions. At 4 months after admission, as operation was performed. The aortic valve was replaced with a #23 mm CarboMedics prosthesis and the mitral valve with a #29 mm Carbo Medics prosthesis. tricuspid valve plasty was performed, with closure of He laceration and perforation of the anterior leaflet combined with a commissuroplasty, according to Kay's method. Ventricular septal defect was closed with a bovine pericardial patch. She was discharged at 19 days after the operation, and is leading a good life. Pervasion of the organism seemed to be initiated from the mitral valve which was conveyed by the blood stream to the aortic valve, and to the tricuspid valve through the ventricula septal defect. Left heart evaluation may be important in cases with infective endocarditis and ventricula septal defect.
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8/103. Ruptured sinus valsalva with infectious endocarditis: a technique of defect closure with an autologous-xenologous pericardial sandwich patch.

    We report a case of ventricular septal defect with acquired rupture of sinus Valsalva induced by infectious endocarditis. After irrigati on of all infectious tissues, the defect was closed twice using two different patches. One was an autologous pericardial patch from the right ventricle and the other was a composite patch made of an autologous pericardium and axenologous pericardium from the left ventricle. As a result, the xenologous pericardium was sandwiched between autologous pericardiums. We thought that this "sandwiched patch" would compensate for the shortcomings of each type of pericardium and resist left ventricular pressure and infection. Despite the development of antibiotic therapy, infectious endocardit is (IE) is still one of the most difficult disease to cure. In the case of a rupture of sinus Valsalva, because of the rapid spread of infection into any of the cardiac chambers, surgical intervention is necessary. In this report, we describe a case treated successfully.
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9/103. First reported successful management of serratia marcescens bacteremia after open heart surgery in a child.

    A 7 and one-half yr-old girl developed bacteremia from S. marcescens following debanding of the pulmonary artery and closure of multiple ventricular septal defects with a Dacron patch and multiple Teflon pledgets. The site of entry was probably a radial arterial catheter left in place for 8 days. infection was eradicated by a combination of gentamicin and carbenicillin over a 4-wk period. Of 12 cases of postoperative Serratia bacteremia in adults following valve replacement, only four survived. Antibiotics of proven effectiveness against the specific isolated Serratia strain, prompt therapy sustained for 6 wk offers the prospect for cure of this serious complication of cardiac surgery.
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10/103. Removal of an infected ventricular septal defect patch after tetralogy repair.

    An infected Dacron ventricular septal defect (VSD) patch was removed 15 years after repair of tetralogy of fallot. cardiopulmonary bypass was not utilized, and no significant hemorrhage was encountered. The patient recovered uneventfully and continues to do well 7 years after surgery without infection or residual VSD.
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