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1/3. Heat-related illnesses, deaths, and risk factors--Cincinnati and Dayton, ohio, 1999, and united states, 1979-1997.

    During the summer of 1999, a heat wave occurred in the midwestern and eastern united states. This period of hot and humid weather persisted from July 12 through August 1, 1999, and caused or contributed to 22 deaths among persons residing in Cincinnati (18 deaths) and Dayton (four deaths). A CDC survey of 24 U.S. metropolitan areas indicated that ohio recorded some of the highest rates for heat-related deaths during the 1999 heat wave, with Cincinnati reporting 21 per million and Dayton reporting seven per million (CDC, unpublished data, 1999). This report describes four heat-related deaths representative of those that occurred in Cincinnati or Dayton during the 1999 heat wave, summarizes heat-related deaths in the united states during 1979-1997, describes risk factors associated with heat-related illness and death, and recommends preventive measures.
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ranking = 1
keywords = wave
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2/3. Heat-wave-related mortality--Milwaukee, wisconsin, July 1995.

    During July 12-15, 1995, a heat wave occurred in major portions of the midwestern and eastern united states. Record-high temperatures were recorded at approximately 70 locations, ranging from the central and northern Great Plains to the Atlantic coast and caused substantial numbers of heat-related illnesses and deaths in some locations. In Milwaukee, wisconsin (1994 estimated population: 938,112), maximum daily temperatures ranged from 91 F (32.7 C) to 103 F (39.5 C), and average daily humidity was as high as 70%. This report summarizes the investigation by the Milwaukee County Medical Examiner's Office (MCMEO) and the Milwaukee Department of health and Social Services of heat-related deaths in Milwaukee during the heat wave and presents four case reports.
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ranking = 2
keywords = wave
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3/3. Heat-related deaths -- Dallas, Wichita, and Cooke counties, texas, and united states, 1996.

    During July 2-8, 1996, high maximum daily temperatures in Dallas County, texas, ranged from 101 F (38.3 C) to 106 F (41.1 C), and high maximum daily heat indexes (a measure of the effect of combined elements [e.g., heat and humidity] on the body) ranged from 105 F (40.6 C) to 112 F (44.4 C). Although guidelines for issuing heat advisories or warnings vary by geographic location and climate, the National weather Service generally suggests issuing a heat advisory when a daytime heat index reaches > or =105 F (> or =40.6 C), and a night time minimum ambient temperature of 80 F (26.7 C) persists for at least 48 hours. In Dallas County, the criterion used by the medical examiner's (ME's) office to designate a heat wave is > or =3 consecutive days of temperatures > or =100 F (37.8 C). This report describes four cases of heat-related death in Dallas, Wichita, and Cooke counties, texas, in 1996; summarizes risk factors for this problem; and reviews measures to prevent heat-related morbidity and mortality. The findings in this report indicate that, although a large proportion of heat-related deaths occur during the summer and during heat waves, such deaths occur year-round.
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keywords = wave
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