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1/37. Brain imaging in a patient with hemimicropsia.

    Hemimicropsia is an isolated misperception of the size of objects in one hemifield (objects appear smaller) which is, as a phenomenon of central origin, very infrequently reported in literature. We present a case of hemimicropsia as a selective deficit of size and distance perception in the left hemifield without hemianopsia caused by a cavernous angioma with hemorrhage in the right occipitotemporal area. The symptom occurred only intermittently and was considered the consequence of a local irritation by the hemorrhage. Imaging data including a volume-rendering MR data set of the patient's brain were transformed to the 3-D stereotactic grid system by Talairach and warped to a novel digital 3-D brain atlas. Imaging analysis included functional MRI (fMRI) to analyse the patient's visual cortex areas (mainly V5) in relation to the localization of the hemangioma to establish physiological landmarks with respect to visual stimulation. The lesion was localized in the peripheral visual association cortex, Brodmann area (BA) 19, adjacent to BA 37, both of which are part of the occipitotemporal visual pathway. Additional psychophysical measurements revealed an elevated threshold for perceiving coherent motion, which we relate to a partial loss of function in V5, a region adjacent to the cavernoma. In our study, we localized for the first time a cerebral lesion causing micropsia by digital mapping in Talairach space using a 3-D brain atlas and topologically related it to fMRI data for visual motion. The localization of the brain lesion affecting BA 19 and the occipitotemporal visual pathway is discussed with respect to experimental and case report findings about the neural basis of object size perception.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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2/37. Experience in surgical management of tumours involving the cavernous sinus.

    Potential injury to the neurovascular structures within the cavernous sinus often prohibits aggressive removal of tumours involving it, however, fully understanding the anatomy and selecting an appropriate surgical approach can often resolve this problem with acceptable morbidity. Moreover, a tumour may originate from different anatomical structures of the cavernous sinus which will influence the difficulty and outcome of the surgery. In general, tumours in this region can be classified as intradural, intracavernous and invasive types. The strategy of surgical treatment varies among these different anatomical types. Therefore, preoperative evaluation of tumours in the cavernous sinus is critical for the selection of an appropriate microsurgical approach. During the past 5 years, 12 tumours involving the cavernous sinus have been operated upon which included four neuromas, three meningiomas, three cavernous haemangiomas, one plasmacytoma and one chondroma. Nine of these twelve tumours were totally resected after one or two operations. There was no surgical mortality and the most common morbidity was transient cranial nerve palsy. At 2 months after surgery there was no additional postoperative cranial nerve deficit in all the patients; however, one patient developed a postoperative middle cerebral artery infarct due to accidental injury to the internal carotid artery during surgery. The respectability of the tumour mostly depends on its consistency and the involvement of the adjacent anatomy. The pathoanatomical features of the tumours and the clinicoradiological findings, as well as the selection of the microsurgical approach, are discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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3/37. Extradural spinal cavernous haemangioma: case report and review of the literature.

    Cavernous haemangiomas (cavernomas) are uncommon vascular malformations of the central nervous system (CNS). They occur in both sporadic and familial forms and may involve any site in the CNS. Spinal cavernomas are less common than intracerebral lesion s, and examples in the spinal epidural space are rare. A case of a solitary sporadic spinal extradural cavernoma in a 41 year old male which presented as progressive lower limb numbness and weakness is reported. The literature regarding spinal cavernomas is reviewed and the symptomatology, diagnostic evaluation, pathology, management and prognosis of these lesions are discussed.
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keywords = cerebral
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4/37. Surgery of a cavernous angioma making a tunnel between the fourth ventricle and tubercle.

    We removed a cavernous angioma, making a tunnel between the fourth ventricle and tubercle using the traction-dissection method. Cavernous angioma with such a distribution is extremely rare, and we manipulated the mass differently to minimize surgical damage. Intraoperative findings and technical considerations are made.
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ranking = 2.6833209382394
keywords = ventricle
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5/37. Neoplastic growth of cerebral cavernous malformation presenting with impending cerebral herniation: a case report and review of the literature on de novo growth of cavernomas.

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral cavernomas are rare vascular anomalies and their expansile growth has been considered to be mainly due to recurrent hemorrhages. They are not generally reported to show aggressive behavior.CASE DESCRIPTION: A 27-year-old male presented with headache, visual disturbances, and a 17-year history of seizures. He was known to have a temporal lobe lesion on CT scan, consistent with a diagnosis of cavernous malformation but with no relevant family history. Serial clinical and radiological follow-up revealed a progressive increase in the size of the lesion with formation of a growing cyst of 7 cm in diameter, which produced mass effect, resulting in the clinical picture of cerebral herniation. The patient underwent emergency surgical resection with symptomatic relief. There was no evidence of significant hemorrhage at surgery.CONCLUSION: Cavernous malformations can show expansile growth without any evidence of a presaging hemorrhagic event and, in the manner of a neoplastic lesion, present with raised intracranial pressure and cerebral herniation.
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ranking = 10
keywords = cerebral
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6/37. Cavernous haemangioma in the interpeduncular cistern: case report and review of literature.

    A rare case of a cavernous haemangioma in the interpeduncular cistern is reported. The patient, forty-five year old male presented with excruciating left sided trigeminal neuralgia and diplopia for the past one year. Examination revealed left third and fifth nerve paresis. magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined, lobulated tumour in the interpeduncular cistern. The tumour was totally excised through a subtemporal route. histology of the tumour revealed a cavernous haemangioma. Extracerebral location for a cavernous haemangioma is rare. An interpeduncular cavernous haemangioma has never been reported earlier in literature. The clinical and radiological features are discussed and relevant literature is briefly reviewed.
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keywords = cerebral
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7/37. The juxtaposition of a capillary telangiectasia, cavernous malformation, and developmental venous anomaly in the brainstem of a single patient: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Capillary telangiectasias, cavernous malformations, and developmental venous anomalies are all vascular malformations that occur on the capillary-venous side of the cerebral circulation. The associations of capillary telangiectasias with venous malformations, cavernous malformations with venous malformations, and capillary telangiectasias with cavernous malformations have all been described; however, the association of all three lesions in a single patient is extremely rare. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 52 year-old Caucasian woman presented to our clinic with an extended history of confusion, distorted visual perceptions, photophobia, neck pain, swallowing problems, and poor balance. The patient's examination was remarkable for difficulty concentrating, mild rotatory nystagmus, subtle decreased sensation over the left side of the face and body, and brisk reflexes. review of the patient's magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a cavernous malformation, a capillary telangiectasia, and a developmental venous anomaly located adjacent to one another in the brainstem. INTERVENTION: Given the patient's complex constellation of symptoms and relatively mild neurological findings, it was difficult to ascribe any one of them to a specific vascular malformation. Conservative management of this patient's vascular malformations was decided upon. CONCLUSION: Juxtaposition of these three different vascular lesions in the brainstem of an otherwise normal individual suggests a relationship among them. Although there are several theories that link similar associations through physiological mechanisms such as venous hypertension, we propose that a developmental event disrupting local capillary-venous pattern formation is a plausible alternative.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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8/37. Hereditary cerebral cavernous angiomas: presentation as idiopathic familial epilepsy.

    In cavernous angiomas of the brain, abnormally dilated blood vessels are tightly clustered together with no intervening neural parenchyma. Commonly recognised as a sporadic finding, these lesions may also be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. This disorder was recognised as a common entity with the advent of MRI. As lesions were often not detected on CT imaging, symptomatic patients presenting with seizures were mistakenly diagnosed with an idiopathic seizure disorder. seizures are the commonest presenting symptom followed by haemorrhage and focal neurologic deficit. We present another cause of familial epilepsy that also emphasises the importance of MRI as the modality of choice in investigating seizures in children.
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ranking = 4
keywords = cerebral
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9/37. Endoscopic fenestration of symptomatic septum pellucidum cysts: three case reports with discussion on the approaches and technique.

    OBJECTIVES: We describe three patients with symptomatic septum pellucidum cysts treated by endoscopic fenestration and discuss the different endoscopic approaches to these cysts. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The patients are an 8-year-old boy, a 7-year-old boy and a 21-year-old woman; this last also had a right frontal cavernous angioma and a pituitary microadenoma. All patients presented with headache, associated with vomiting in two and behavioral changes in one. In all cases magnetic resonance showed a septum pellucidum cyst. INTERVENTION: Two patients were operated upon by posterior approach through a right occipital burr hole and underwent fenestration from the right occipital horn to the cyst, with a second fenestration from the cyst to the left lateral ventricle in one. Another patient underwent microsurgical removal of a right frontal cavernoma and endoscopic cyst fenestration with both lateral ventricles through a right frontal craniotomy. Postoperatively, headache and vomiting resolved in all cases and behaviour changes improved in one. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic fenestration is the treatment of choice for septum pellucidum cysts, where it results in immediate relief of the mass effect of the cyst and in the remission of the associated symptoms. We suggest a posterior approach through a right occipital burr hole. It allows one to easily cannulate the occipital horn, which is usually larger than the frontal one, thus avoiding the risk of damaging the vascular and neural structures surrounding the foramen of Monro. Besides, the endoscopic trajectory is in our opinion more direct. The two-window technique, with fenestration of the cyst into both lateral ventricles, improves the chances of long-term patency.
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ranking = 1.7808586627348
keywords = ventricle, foramen
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10/37. Anterior transpetrosal approach for pontine cavernous angioma--case report.

    A 58-year-old male patient presented with headache and unsteady gait. magnetic resonance imaging revealed hemorrhage from a pontine cavernous angioma. The patient experienced stepwise aggravation of symptoms due to repeated hemorrhages. We decided to surgically remove the pontine cavernous angioma through an anterior transpetrosal approach, since the angioma and hematoma were located near the ventrolateral surface of the pons. The brain stem was incised at a site caudal to the trigeminal nerve and the hematoma and angioma were totally removed. No additional neurological deficits were observed following surgery. brain stem cavernous angiomas are usually removed via a trans-fourth ventricle or lateral suboccipital approach. However, these approaches may not be appropriate if the angioma is located ventrally to the pons. We propose that the anterior transpetrosal approach is the method of choice for ventrally located pontine cavernous angioma.
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ranking = 0.53666418764788
keywords = ventricle
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