Cases reported "Hematemesis"

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1/39. Esophageal tuberculosis: a rare presentation with massive hematemesis.

    A 43-year-old female presented with massive hematemesis. esophagoscopy showed an ulcer 22 to 25 cm from the incisor with active bleeding. A thoracotomy and primary closure of the ulcer was performed. Massive hematemesis recurred 8 days later, resulting in hypovolemic shock. The thoracic esophagus was resected and histological examination showed granuloma with central caseous necrosis. Combined chemotherapy was given for 10 months. At 6 months after the subtotal esophagectomy, the esophagus was reconstructed using the right-side colon.
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ranking = 1
keywords = esophagus
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2/39. Arterial-esophageal fistulae in patients requiring nasogastric esophageal intubation.

    A rare and potentially fatal cause of hematemesis is fistula formation between the esophagus and the vascular system. A case report of a 39-year-old woman with congenital aortic arch anomalies hospitalized for treatment of head injuries demonstrates the potential for iatrogenic esophageal trauma to initiate fistula formation between the esophagus and an anomalous arterial system. A literature review revealed 6 other cases of vascular-esophageal fistulae caused by nasogastric esophageal intubation. It is concluded that aortic arch anomalies increase the risk of esophageal injury and subsequent fistula formation from nasogastric esophageal intubation. In addition, the clinical features and pathologic findings of vascular-esophageal fistulae are reviewed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = esophagus
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3/39. Case report: right subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm due to perforation of esophageal cancer.

    A 51-year-old man presented with massive hematemesis. Perforation of upper esophageal cancer, which had already occurred at least six days earlier, progressed to upper mediastinitis. The mediastinitis contiguous to the right subclavian artery was considered to have caused a pseudoaneurysm. rupture of the pseudoaneurysm into the esophagus resulted in massive hematemesis. Both enhanced computed tomography and angiography were diagnostic for the pseudoaneurysm. Transluminal endovascular stent-grafts placement was successful in preventing subsequent hemorrhage.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = esophagus
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4/39. Aortoesophageal fistula associated with tuberculous mediastinitis, mimicking esophageal Dieulafoy's disease.

    Aortoesophageal fistula is a rare and lethal disorder that may result from primary diseases of aorta or esophagus, aortic bypass graft, ingestion of foreign body, trauma, surgical procedure or instrumentation. Tuberculous fistula is extremely rare. We present a 27-yr-old female patient with aortoesophageal fistula associated with tuberculous mediastinitis. The patient experienced massive hematemesis and esophagoscopy revealed a small mucosal defect with exudate-coated blood vessel like Dieulafoy 's lesion on about 25 cm from the incisor teeth. Despite two sessions of endoscopic hemostatic procedures, active massive hemorrhage recurred and was controlled effectively with a prompt insertion of Sengstaken-Blakemore tube. The patient underwent open thoracotomy, which revealed aortoesophageal fistula. Numerous white-yellowish, millet seed-like tubercles were scattered in pleural and abdominal cavity. Division of fistular tract and esophageal resection with Ivor-Lewis anastomosis were performed. Histopathologic study confirmed tuberculous pleuritis and peritonitis. The patient died of postoperative pulmonary complication.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = esophagus
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5/39. Dieulafoy's lesion of esophagus.

    Dieulafoy's lesion is a rare arterial malformation that can cause massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The lesion occurs most commonly in the proximal stomach. The esophagus is not a common location for this lesion. We present the case of a 25-year-old woman who was admitted to our emergency unit with the findings of hematemesis and melena. Early upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination revealed a Dieulafoy's lesion, which was located in the distal esophagus. Endoscopic band ligation stopped the bleeding successfully. The patient was discharged 3 days after the band ligation without any complications. Dieulafoy's lesion may cause severe, life-threatening bleeding. Endoscopic diagnosis can be difficult because of the small size and obscure location of the lesion. An abnormally dilated artery that penetrates through the mucosa constitutes the etiology. endoscopy plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. Despite widespread awareness of this entity, it may present a real challenge for the endoscopist due to the small size and hidden location of the lesion. The endoscopic approach to occult gastrointestinal bleeding for the diagnosis of vascular malformations is accepted as a quick and safe diagnostic method.
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ranking = 3
keywords = esophagus
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6/39. Idiopathic hepatic arterio-portal fistula: report of one case.

    Hepatic arterio-portal fistula is a rare cause of portal hypertension in children; it is an abnormal communication of hepatic artery and portal venous system, the most common causes being trauma or malignancy. There were only 11 cases reported in English literature and were not ever reported in taiwan. We report a 9-year old boy with idiopathic hepatic arterio-portal fistula presented as intractable hematemesis due to esophageal and gastric varices. He had received sclerotherapy twice, and Sugiura operation (resection of the lower part of esophagus, devasculization of the stomach and splenectomy). Idiopathic hepatic arterio-portal fistula was found in angiography examination and the esophageal and gastric varices disappeared after transarterial embolization (TAE). We conclude that angiography is the golden diagnostic method for portal hypertension when the etiology is hepatic arterio-portal fistula and TAE will provide immediately therapy.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = esophagus
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7/39. Secondary aortoesophageal fistula after endoluminal exclusion because of thoracic aortic transection.

    Secondary aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) is a rare but catastrophic complication that occurs after thoracic aortic reconstruction. Recently endoluminal stent grafts have been used in selected patients with a thoracic aortic aneurysm, dissection, or traumatic aortic transection. A 24-year-old woman had massive upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding 15 months after endoluminal stent graft placement because of traumatic descending thoracic aortic transection. Evaluation demonstrated an AEF from the mid-esophagus to the endoluminal stent graft. The endoluminal graft was explanted, with primary repair of the thoracic aortic defect and simultaneous primary repair of the esophageal injury. The patient is well 15 months after open repair of the AEF.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = esophagus
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8/39. Primary aorto-esophageal fistula due to Takayasu's aortitis.

    BACKGROUND: Aneurysmal dilatation in Takayasu's arteritis is a recognized complication; however, fistula formation, especially to the esophagus, is very rare. methods: A 22-year-old male presented with severe hematemesis. Investigation by means of esophagogastroscopy and CT scan revealed a saccular aneurysm in the proximal descending aorta with communication to the esophagus. The patient was taken to theater, the aneurysm excised and replaced by a graft. RESULTS: Gross examination of the aneurysm showed multiple points of outpouching from the aneurysm. Histopathological examination of the showed marked intimal fibromyxoid thickening, loss of outer medial muscle and elastic fibers and marked fibrosis of the adventitial layer. The histological features were in keeping with Takayasu's arteritis. No evidence of tuberculosis was noted. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates an unusual complication of Takayasu's arteritis, in the form of a fistula between the aorta and the esophagus, which resulted in massive hematemesis and the ultimate demise of the patient.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = esophagus
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9/39. Arterioesophageal fistula: a rare complication of retroesophageal subclavian arteries.

    Formation of a fistula between a retroesophageal subclavian artery and the esophagus is a rare cause of hematemesis that is usually fatal. Several etiologies have been described. The purpose of this report is to describe a case involving successful surgical repair of an arterioesophageal fistula induced by prolonged nasogastric intubation. A preoperative CT scan under emergency conditions allowed tentative diagnosis. Arteriography in the operating room confirmed the presence of a fistula and also allowed temporary hemostasis by tamponade. On the basis of a review of the literature, this case demonstrates the importance of screening patients requiring prolonged nasogastric intubation to rule out the possibility of an aberrant aortic arch system.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = esophagus
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10/39. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours of the oesophagus.

    A rare case of gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) of the oesophagus is presented. Pathological features with a review of the treatment options and the literature are presented.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = esophagus
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