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1/79. Vertex epidural hematoma: surgical versus conservative management: two case reports and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Vertex epidural hematomas may be underestimated or overlooked altogether when computed tomographic scans alone are used for diagnosis. Such hematomas can be resolved with active intervention and sometimes with conservative treatment. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Two cases of successfully treated vertex epidural hematomas, in a 33-year-old man who presented with seizures and an 11-year-old girl who presented with headache and vomiting, are described. Both hematomas were traumatic in origin and were associated with cranial fractures. In each, coronal images (computed tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging scans) showed the extent of the hematoma much more clearly than did axial images. INTERVENTION: One case was treated surgically and the other conservatively. CONCLUSION: magnetic resonance imaging is not usually indicated for trauma patients, but it is an appropriate diagnostic modality for these rare lesions, to supplement standard axial computed tomographic scans. Because vertex epidural hematomas may resolve spontaneously with time, conservative treatment should be considered on a case-by-case basis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fracture
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2/79. Occipital condyle fracture with peripheral neurological deficit.

    A 24-year-old woman sustained a type III Anderson and Montesano fracture in a road traffic accident. Acute respiratory stridor, multiple cranial nerve palsies and right upper limb neurological deficits associated with a C1 to T2 extradural haematoma were unique features of this case. The patient made a full and uncomplicated recovery with conservative management.
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ranking = 5
keywords = fracture
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3/79. Skull metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with acute epidural hematoma: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Although epidural hematoma is well documented in trauma patients, its association with other etiologies, such as neoplasms, is not widely known. Here the authors report a case of acute epidural hematoma that originated from a metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the skull. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 70-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with left-sided hemiparesis. Preoperative computed tomography (CT) revealed a lenticular high-density area adjacent to the right parietal bone, consistent with an acute epidural hematoma. A subsequent magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed a skull tumor adjacent to the epidural hematoma. Removal of the tumor and evacuation of the hematoma were performed and the pathological diagnosis was metastatic HCC. Postoperatively, the patient gradually recovered but he died of pneumonia 2 months later. CONCLUSION: This report represents an additional example of a rare case of metastatic skull tumor associated with acute epidural hematoma. The authors suggest that metastatic skull tumors may be one of the important differential diagnoses in patients with acute epidural hematoma.
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ranking = 4.8515694198716
keywords = skull
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4/79. Traumatic acute giant epidural hematoma in a hydrocephalic shunted child.

    Extradural hematoma (EDH) is considered to be a rare complication of head trauma in children, and represents a serious and urgent pathology from which complete recovery can be expected if specialized treatment is instituted in time. In this article, the authors report the potential danger to a hydrocephalic shunted child who was apparently asymptomatic at the time of hospital admission with a mild head injury and developed an EDH of venous origin. This child had a rapid (time interval from injury to decerebrate posture of about 2 h), atypical (remained asymptomatic most of the time until abruptly deterioration) and fatal course, stressing the importance of early diagnosis and rapid therapy in order to avoid the death of the patient. The authors discuss the role of the ventriculoperitoneal shunting system in the lack of clinical symptoms associated with the presence of a giant EDH and a rapid and fatal course, and stress the importance of computed tomographic (CT) scanning in these patients, even if they are asymptomatic. If a skull fracture is suspected, a CT scan must be performed without delay.
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ranking = 119.74517328151
keywords = skull fracture, skull, fracture
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5/79. Transverse clivus fracture: case presentation and significance of clinico-anatomic correlations.

    BACKGROUND: Bilateral transverse basal skull fractures resulting from lateral crushing injuries involve fractures of the clivus that present clinically with multiple cranial nerve injuries and possible delayed vascular injuries due to the tight neural and vascular entry and exit routes present in this region. A case of a young patient with an extensive basal skull fracture is presented with description of the clinical signs and symptoms in relation to the neuroradiological findings. Clinico-anatomic correlations have been reiterated. CASE DESCRIPTION: A case of a young patient suffering a bilateral crush injury resulting in a basal transverse clivus and petrous bone fracture is presented. Multiple cranial nerve injuries, unilateral and bilateral, were present (CN III, VI, VII). This clinical presentation correlated well with the anatomical location and extension of the respective cranial nerves at the level of the skull base and along the fracture line extending bilaterally through the clivus and petrous bone. CONCLUSIONS: Initial neurological and neuroradiological investigations should be aimed at promptly detecting cranial nerve injuries and their correlating fracture injuries at the skull base. The possible development and progression of delayed neurological deficits should also be kept in mind and investigated.
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ranking = 249.91613127296
keywords = skull fracture, skull, fracture
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6/79. The injured coach.

    The patient in this case was diagnosed as having an epidural hematoma (shown in x-ray at right). This results from hemorrhage between the dura mater and the skull. The hemorrhage may result from a traumatic insult to the side of the head, which can fracture the temporal bone and lacerate the middle meningeal artery. Since the hemorrhage is arterial in nature, the patient may deteriorate quickly. These patients may present with what is referred to as a "lucid interval." The patient typically has a significant blow to the head that results in a short period of unconsciousness. They then regain consciousness at a time that frequently coincides with the arrival of EMS. Once conscious, they are in a period known as the lucid interval. They will still have a headache, but may otherwise be acting normally and show no other physical findings on examination. Many such patients refuse treatment and transport. [table: see text] Inside the skull, however, the problem will grow. Broken arterial vessels are bleeding, causing an expanding hematoma. The patient typically will soon complain of a severe headache along with other associated complaints, such as nausea/vomiting, then will lose consciousness again and/or have a seizure. Initial physical findings may include contralateral weakness and a decreased Glasgow coma score. As the hematoma expands, cerebral herniation may occur, compressing the third cranial nerve, which presents as a "blown pupil." EMS providers should have a high suspicion of injuries that affect the side of the head and the base of the skull. It is important to not only assess such injuries, but also the mechanism of injury, and to know the complications or later presentation that can arise from such injuries. Given that this patient was alert, oriented, not obviously intoxicated, and accompanied by his wife, the providers in this case would have had no choice but to abide by a refusal of treatment and transport. However, that could lead to serious complications, such as ongoing minor neurological deficits, later on. If this is the case, contacting medical control should be the priority.
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ranking = 4.6386770649037
keywords = skull, fracture
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7/79. Vertex epidural hematoma associated with traumatic arteriovenous fistula of the middle meningeal artery: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Vertex epidural hematomas are rare. We describe the features of a vertex epidural hematoma associated with an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) of the meningeal artery created by a laceration of the dura mater underlying a linear skull fracture. Although AVF associated with convexity epidural hematomas has been reported, we know of no such previous report of vertex epidural hematomas. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 65-year-old woman presented with generalized headache following head injury. On hospital day 3, she developed a left hemiparesis. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed a thick epidural hematoma at the vertex. cerebral angiography showed an AVF between the middle meningeal artery and a venous lake. On hospital day 4, the epidural hematoma was evacuated. CONCLUSION: Although coronal MRI was important for diagnosis of this vertex epidural hematomas, the case particularly illustrates the importance of cerebral angiography. The delayed onset of hemiparesis most likely reflected a continuing increase in hematoma volume because of bleeding from the lacerated meningeal artery.
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ranking = 119.74517328151
keywords = skull fracture, skull, fracture
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8/79. Posterior cranial fossa venous extradural haematoma: an uncommon form of intracranial injury.

    Extradural haematomas are commonly associated with direct trauma to the temporal bones of the cranium resulting in damage to the middle meningeal artery or its branches. A case is presented of an occipital skull fracture with venous sinus bleeding that resulted in a posterior cranial fossa extradural haematoma. Bleeding in this area, if unrecognised, may lead rapidly to respiratory arrest secondary to brainstem compression. The presence of significant trauma to the occiput should alert the attending clinician to the possibility of this uncommon but potentially fatal condition.
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ranking = 119.74517328151
keywords = skull fracture, skull, fracture
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9/79. Intracranial penetrating injury associated with an intraoperative epidural haematoma caused by a spring-laden pin of a multipoise headrest.

    Lack of an intermediary piece that should have been placed between the pin and spring resulted in skull penetration due to a rapid waste in the spring's compensatory capacity. Checking integrity of internal pieces should be performed regularly. Designing intermediary piece and spring as a single piece might increase safety.
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ranking = 1.2128923549679
keywords = skull
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10/79. eosinophilic granuloma with acute epidural hematoma: a case report.

    The most common symptoms of eosinophilic granuloma are local tenderness and an enlarged skull mass. The presence of epidural hematoma is a very rare symptom of eosinophilic granuloma. To our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of eosinophilic granuloma with epidural hematoma. A 2-year-old boy with a soft tumor on the occipital scalp, palpable at the age of 3 months, yet with no obvious history of trauma, was admitted due to a sudden onset of loss of consciousness. A brain computed tomography scan showed a lytic lesion on the occipital skull with a large epidural and subcutaneous hematoma, causing brain compression. He underwent an emergency craniectomy with removal of both the tumor and hematoma. The patient regained consciousness and had no residual neurological damage. Pathological reports showed abnormal proliferation of Langerhans' cells, eosinophilic cells and multinucleated cells. A whole-body bone nuclide scan revealed no other bone lesions. The patient was discharged uneventfully. The causes of hematomas are not very clear. They may be due to tumor necrosis or minor trauma. In our presented case, the cause of the epidural hematoma may have been tumor bleeding which ruptured into the epidural space. A solitary eosinophilic granuloma of the skull with acute epidural hematoma and loss of consciousness is extremely uncommon. Craniectomy with removal of the tumor and hematoma decompression may produce good results.
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ranking = 3.6386770649037
keywords = skull
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