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1/6. Intrathecal injection of epidural blood patch: a case report and review of the literature.

    Epidural blood patch (EBP) is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of persistent severe post- dural-puncture headache (PDPH). It has a high success rate with a low incidence of complications. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman who developed progressive back pain and radicular symptoms after an EBP was performed for PDPH. An emergency MRI showed a subarachnoid hematoma. Gradual recovery occurred without the need for intervention. To our knowledge, this is the only case demonstrating the MRI findings of a rare complication of a common procedure. Radiologists may benefit from familiarity with epidural blood patching, including the technique, risks, benefits, and potential complications
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2/6. Spinal epidural hematoma following central neuraxial blockade and subcutaneous enoxaparin: a case report.

    An elderly patient developed a spinal epidural hematoma 3 days after lumbar puncture resulting in paraplegia. Concurrent administration of enoxaparin, aspirin, ketorolac, and a traumatic tap were implicated in causation.
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3/6. Epidural blood patch in a patient taking enoxaparin.

    A 36-year-old, 204-kg parturient with a past medical history of factor v Leiden requiring enoxaparin therapy developed a postdural puncture headache. With careful coordination of her enoxaparin dosing, an epidural blood patch was successfully performed. Performance of a blood patch in patients taking enoxaparin involves the withholding of the medication for a specific period.
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4/6. Complications of lumbar puncture in a child treated for leukaemia.

    Lumbar puncture may lead to neurological complications. These include intracranial hypotension, cervical epidural haematomas, and cranial and lumbar subdural haematomas. MRI is the modality of choice to diagnose these complications. This report documents MRI findings of such complications in a child treated for leukaemia.
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5/6. Intraspinal and intracranial hemorrhage after lumbar puncture.

    Two cases of spinal epidural hematoma and two cases of intracranial subdural hematoma after lumbar puncture (LP) are reported in children receiving chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The bleeding was asymptomatic but interfered with treatment in one case, and caused either severe backache or headache but no neurological deficit in the other three patients. The platelet counts were 8 and 46 x 10(9)/L in two patients and were normal in the other patients at the time of LP. All recovered without surgical treatment. There is an inherent, albeit uncommon, risk of bleeding into the central nervous system associated with LP in children with cancer and should be distinguished from postdural puncture headache (PDPH). thrombocytopenia is not always an accompanying factor.
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6/6. Spinal epidural hematoma after removal of an epidural catheter: case report and review of the literature.

    We report a case of spinal epidural hematoma after removal of an epidural catheter. The patient had no background of anticoagulant therapy or coagulopathy; sudden severe back pain occurred immediately after removal of the catheter. The chance of this occurring is estimated to be between 1:150,000 and 1:190,000. We studied 40 previous reports from 1952 to 2000, and we also investigated anticoagulant therapy and pathologic states, puncture difficulties and bleeding at the point of insertion, and its onset. In 23 cases (57.5%), anticoagulant therapy had been performed, and in 5 cases (12.5%), coagulopathy or liver dysfunction had been recognized. In 20 cases (50%), the initial symptoms were recognized within 24 hours after removal of the epidural catheter. Although spinal epidural hematoma is a very rare condition, it is a serious complication of continuous epidural anesthesia.
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