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1/69. Posttraumatic subdural hygroma: CT findings and differential diagnosis.

    Subdural hygroma is a cerebrospinal fluid accumulation in the subdural space. It is an epiphenomenon of head injury. CT is the preferred diagnostic imaging modality. Differential diagnosis has to be made with chronic subdural hematoma, and atrophy with enlargement of the subarachnoid space. As time goes by, subdural hygroma either resolves, or it becomes a chronic subdural hematoma. Neurosurgical evacuation is only required when mass effect creates neurologic symptoms.
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keywords = subdural, subdural space, space
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2/69. Symptomatic calcified subdural hematomas.

    Two unique cases of chronic calcified subdural hematomas are reported in children as a long-term complication of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Both the patients had undergone shunt procedures in infancy for congenital hydrocephalus. In one patient, the cause of the hydrocephalus was aqueduct stenosis, while in the second patient, a lumbar meningomyelocele was associated with hydrocephalus. In both these patients, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was done in infancy. In one of them, following the shunt surgery, a bilateral subdural collection was noticed which required burr hole evacuation. Both the patients remained asymptomatic for 9 years, when they presented to our center with acute raised intracranial pressure and contralateral hemiparesis. Both the patients had a relatively short history and had altered sensorium at admission. Surprisingly, in both the patients, the CT scan showed significant mass effect producing calcified subdural hematomas. The shunt systems were found to be working well at surgery. craniotomy and excision of the calcified subdural hematomas was undertaken. Postoperatively, the patients showed satisfactory recovery, and at discharge the patients were doing well. At the follow-up at the outpatient clinic, the patients were asymptomatic.
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ranking = 0.98410783472394
keywords = subdural
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3/69. Increasing chronic subdural hematoma after endoscopic III ventriculostomy.

    OBJECT: Endoscopic III ventriculostomy (ETV) is an effective and a rather safe treatment for noncommunicating hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis and other obstructive pathologies. Though not devoid of risk, ETV is increasingly replacing shunt operations, and it prevents related complications, including overdrainage. methods: We report a rare case of a large chronic subdural hematoma (ChSDH) after ETV in a patient with aqueductal stenosis. Three weeks after he was shunted elsewhere, he presented to us with clinical symptoms of intracranial hypotension and overdrainage. ETV was performed and the shunt removed uneventfully. On routine postoperative MRI a few weeks later, a large ChSDH was noted, the patient being totally asymptomatic. Since the ChSDH grew significantly, causing a mass effect on the follow-up MRI, it was finally drained. Large and increasing ChSDHs have previously been reported secondary to overdrainage after shunt placement, but not after ETV. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that though rare, a ChSDH may evolve even after ETV, if there is a substantial decrease in previously elevated intracranial pressure.
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ranking = 0.61506739670246
keywords = subdural
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4/69. Intrauterine subdural hematoma.

    A patient with neonatal macrocephaly due to bilateral chronic subdural hematoma is presented. There was no history of intrauterine trauma or coagulopathy. Such patients are apparently rare. The pathogenesis of intrauterine chronic subdural hematoma in such patients is unclear.
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ranking = 0.73808087604295
keywords = subdural
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5/69. Middle meningeal artery embolization for refractory chronic subdural hematoma. Case report.

    The authors present a case of refractory chronic subdural hematoma (CSH) in a 59-year-old man with coagulopathy due to liver cirrhosis. The patient was successfully treated by embolization of the middle meningeal artery after several drainage procedures. This new therapeutic approach to recurrent CSH is discussed.
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ranking = 0.61506739670246
keywords = subdural
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6/69. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension associated with bilateral chronic subdural hematomas--case report.

    A 34-year-old female presented with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) manifesting as severe postural headache and meningism. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with gadolinium showed diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement. She developed bilateral chronic subdural hematomas 4 weeks after the onset of the symptoms. MR imaging showed descent of the midline structures of the brain. The bilateral chronic subdural hematomas were surgically drained, with no remarkable pressure. Postoperative MR imaging showed complete resolution of the pachymeningeal enhancement and relevation of the midline structures of the brain. SIH is an uncommon and probably unrecognized condition because of the usually benign course. However, this case emphasizes that SIH is not entirely benign. SIH should be considered if there is no identifiable risk for intracranial hemorrhage, particularly in young patients. Neurosurgical intervention for the treatment of the underlying cerebrospinal fluid leak may be required if SIH persists.
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ranking = 0.73808087604295
keywords = subdural
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7/69. Spontaneous chronic and subacute subdural haematoma in young adults.

    Spontaneous subacute and chronic haematoma in young adults is rare. It has not been previously reported in this age group. We present three cases of chronic and subacute subdural haematoma in young adults, in one of whom the diagnosis was certainly delayed. All three patients underwent burrhole evacuation and made a full neurological recovery. A cause for the haematoma was never established. The literature on the subject, which is scanty, is reviewed and the condition is briefly discussed. The aetiology remains obscure.
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ranking = 0.61506739670246
keywords = subdural
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8/69. Reduction cranioplasty for craniocerebral disproportion due to chronic subdural hematoma in infants. A technical report.

    Advanced craniocerebral disproportion due to chronic subdural hematoma in infants which is resistant to conventional treatments requires reduction cranioplasty as the last resort. The present paper deals with our experience with two such cases originated from head injury. Since the volume of the hematoma cavity was calculated based on the pre-operative CT scans, we devised a mathematical formula to design how the cranial vault could be reconstructed for reduction. This enabled us to pre-determine the extent of cranial reduction which was tailored to each patient. Furthermore, the present methodology is characterized by the modification that the midline bone strip overlying the superior sagittal sinus was shortened at its anterior end and bent down using the posterior end as a hinge. Since the follow-up results were favorable, this technique of reduction cranioplasty is reported in detail.
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ranking = 0.61506739670246
keywords = subdural
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9/69. Organized chronic subdural hematoma requiring craniotomy--five case reports.

    Two child and three elderly patients underwent craniotomy for organized and/or partially calcified chronic subdural hematomas (CSHs). The characteristic feature of magnetic resonance imaging was a heterogeneous web-like structure in the hematoma cavity. Both children had undergone one side subduroperitoneal shunt for bilateral CSHs when infants. As a result, the opposite hematoma cavities persisted and developed into calcified CSHs after a couple of years. All three elderly patients with senile brain atrophy showed various systemic complications such as cerebral infarction, diabetes mellitus, leg ulceration, cirrhosis, and bleeding tendency. craniotomy for removal of the hematoma and calcification achieved good results in all patients. subdural space created by shunt, craniotomy, or brain atrophy and persisting for a certain period, and additional various brain damage such as microcirculatory disorder, meningitis, encephalitis, or premature delivery may be important in generating calcified or organized CSH.
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ranking = 0.61506859960495
keywords = subdural, space
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10/69. Unilateral spatial neglect associated with chronic subdural haematoma: a case report.

    A 69-year-old right-handed man who exhibited unilateral spatial neglect in association with a chronic subdural haematoma, presented with mild left arm and leg weakness first noted 4 weeks prior to admission. neurologic examination on admission revealed a mild left hemiparesis, including the face. Neuropsychologic examination revealed left unilateral spatial neglect, but no language disturbance. Minimal support was necessary to maintain activities of daily living. Computed tomography revealed a large right temporoparietal, extraaxial hypodense fluid collection containing scattered hypodense foci. The haematoma was evacuated via a right parietal burr hole. Following surgery, the patient dramatically improved neurologically and neuropsychologically, as well as in independent performance of daily activities. It is suggested that the improvement in ADL provides a behavioural correlate of improvement in the latter, represented a behavioural correlate of improved cerebral function, and that either direct compression by the chronic subdural haematoma or an interhemispheric pressure difference had caused unilateral spatial neglect. Such neglect is an unusual consequence of chronic subdural haematoma.
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ranking = 0.86109435538345
keywords = subdural
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