Cases reported "Hematoma, Subdural"

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1/52. Spinal subdural hematoma: a rare complication of lumbar puncture. Case report and review of the literature.

    Spinal subdural hematoma, though rare, is an established complication of lumbar puncture. A young man with persistent back and neck pain after a traumatic lumbar puncture for the diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis is presented. A diagnosis of spinal subdural hematoma at T2 to T8 levels without significant spinal cord compression was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Symptoms resolved after one month of analgesics and muscle relaxants.
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2/52. Nontraumatic acute spinal subdural hematoma: report of five cases and review of the literature.

    Acute subdural spinal hematoma occurs rarely; however, when it does occur, it may have disastrous consequences. The authors assessed the outcome of surgery for this lesion in relation to causative factors and diagnostic imaging (computerized tomography [CT], CT myelography), as well as eventual preservation of the subarachnoid space. The authors reviewed 106 cases of nontraumatic acute subdural spinal hematoma (101 published cases and five of their own) in terms of cause, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term outcome. Fifty-one patients (49%) were men and 55 (51%) were women. In 70% of patients the spinal segment involved was in the lumbar or thoracolumbar spine. In 57 cases (54%) there was a defect in the hemostatic mechanism. spinal puncture was performed in 50 patients (47%). Late surgical treatment was performed in 59 cases (56%): outcome was good in 25 cases (42%) (in 20 of these patients preoperative neurological evaluation had shown mild deficits or paraparesis, and three patients had presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH]). The outcome was poor in 34 cases (58%; 23 patients with paraplegia and 11 with SAH). The formation of nontraumatic acute spinal subdural hematomas may result from coagulation abnormalities and iatrogenic causes such as spinal puncture. Their effect on the spinal cord and/or nerve roots may be limited to a mere compressive mechanism when the subarachnoid space is preserved and the hematoma is confined between the dura and the arachnoid. It seems likely that the theory regarding the opening of the dural compartment, verified at the cerebral level, is applicable to the spinal level too. Early surgical treatment is always indicated when the patient's neurological status progressively deteriorates. The best results can be obtained in patients who do not experience SAH. In a few selected patients in whom neurological impairment is minimal, conservative treatment is possible.
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3/52. Bilateral subdural haematomas following lumbar puncture in three haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    Between 1990 and 1996, three patients (1.1%), all with CML, among 272 patients with haematological malignancies, developed bilateral subdural haematomas (SDH) after treatment with i.t. MTX before HSCT in our unit. Since October 1996, we have given i.t. MTX only to patients at increased risk of CNS leukaemia such as ALL and AML M4 or M5. We suggest that intrathecal treatment before HSCT should only be given to patients at increased risk of CNS leukaemia.
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4/52. Intracranial haemorrhage following lumbar myelography: case report and review of the literature.

    We describe a subacute intracranial subdural haematoma following lumbar myelography. This rare but potentially life-threatening complication has been reported both after lumbar myelography and following lumbar puncture for spinal anaesthesia. We review 16 previously reported cases of intracranial haemorrhage following lumbar myelography, and discuss the pathogenesis. In all reported cases post-puncture headache was the leading symptom and should therefore be regarded as a warning sign.
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5/52. Implantation of a reservoir for refractory chronic subdural hematoma.

    OBJECTIVE: recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma is not rare. Among patients who experience recurrence, severe background disease may adversely influence the prognosis of chronic subdural hematoma. We treated patients with these refractory hematomas with an Ommaya cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reservoir and analyzed the effectiveness of the treatment. methods: Sixteen patients with refractory chronic subdural hematoma were studied. These patients had severe diseases that adversely influenced the clinical course of chronic subdural hematoma, including cerebral infarction, liver cirrhosis, thrombocytopenia, severe Parkinsonism, severe heart disease, psychiatric disease, and spinocerebellar degeneration. All patients were treated initially in the standard fashion: evacuation of the hematoma followed by irrigation and drainage of the hematoma cavity. In each patient, an Ommaya CSF reservoir was implanted after the hematoma recurred. Whenever the volume of the hematoma either decreased very slowly or increased, the reservoir was punctured. RESULTS: The hematoma size decreased to less than 3 mm a median of 60 days after introduction of the reservoir. Postoperatively, 13 patients returned to their condition before the onset of hematoma. One patient died of myocardial infarction, and two patients with Parkinson's disease could not maintain their previous functional level; both remained in a partially dependent state. Complications consisted of minor bleeding in two patients and occlusion of the reservoir in two other patients. CONCLUSION: By use of this method, reoperation was avoided and the patients were mobile early in the postoperative period. This method was suitable for refractory chronic subdural hematoma accompanied by severe disease that adversely influenced the clinical course.
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6/52. Acute hemorrhagic complication of diagnostic lumbar puncture.

    OBJECTIVE: To present a case of an epidural hematoma after lumbar puncture in a pediatric patient without known risk factors for such a complication and to review the literature regarding this complication. DESIGN: Case report, review of the literature, and discussion. DATA SOURCES: A review of medline (1966-1998) for keywords "lumbar puncture" and "hemorrhage" or "hematoma" was conducted, and each bibliography was reviewed for other sources extending to 1911. Articles describing a case of spinal hematoma after a lumbar puncture for any procedure were included. RESULTS: A 5-year-old boy underwent a lumbar puncture for evaluation of lethargy and fever, and subsequently developed marked back pain and severe pain on flexion of his legs. magnetic resonance imaging revealed an epidural blood collection. The patient's symptoms resolved over the next few days in association with steroid administration. Multiple reports of epidural and subdural hematomas were found on literature review, most occurring in the setting of coagulation abnormalities. These reports involve lumbar puncture in anesthetic, interventional, and diagnostic settings. CONCLUSION: Lumbar puncture is a frequently employed procedure. Known complications include epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, usually in the setting of abnormal coagulation. The case presented is unusual in that the patient is a child and lacks any known risk factors for a hemorrhagic complication. Such a complication appears to be rare; only five of the 64 cases discovered in the literature review occurred following this diagnostic procedure in patients without known risk factors.
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7/52. Coagulopathy induced spinal intradural extramedullary haematoma: report of three cases and review of the literature.

    In a retrospective review of patients operated for coagulopathy induced spinal intradural-extramedullary haematoma the literature regarding coagulopathy induced spinal haemorrhage is reviewed and the etiology of these rare spinal subdural and subarachnoid haemorrhages is discussed. Spinal intradural haematomas are usually related to trauma or a previous lumbar puncture. A review of the literature revealed only a handful cases of spinal intradural haemorrhages occurring secondary to an underlying haematological disorder or an iatrogenic coagulopathy. Coagulopathy induced spinal haemorrhage should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute paraparesis in patients with co-existent haematological disorders or undergoing anticoagulation therapy. Due to the often mixed subdural and subarachnoid bleeding patterns we have termed this entity spinal intradural-extramedullary haematoma.
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8/52. Intracranial subdural hematoma after puncture of spinal meningeal cysts.

    A patient is reported with an intracranial subdural hematoma after puncture of spinal meningeal cysts. In this case, spinal meningeal cysts were diagnosed by myelography. No intracranial subdural hematoma was detected immediately after myelography. Deterioration in the patient's level of consciousness occurred after puncture of the cysts. The authors speculated that the cerebrospinal fluid pressure dropped rapidly when the spinal meningeal cysts were punctured. This displaced the cerebral bridging veins downward, tearing them and resulting in an intracranial subdural hematoma.
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9/52. Cranial subdural haematoma after spinal anaesthesia.

    Intracranial subdural haematoma is an exceptionally rare complication of spinal anaesthesia. A 20-yr-old male underwent appendicectomy under partial spinal and subsequent general anaesthesia. A week later, he presented with severe headache and vomiting not responding to bed rest and analgesia. magnetic resonance imaging showed a small acute subdural haematoma in the right temporo-occipital region. The patient improved without surgical decompression. The pathogenesis of headache and subdural haematoma formation after dural puncture is discussed and the literature briefly reviewed. Severe and prolonged post-dural puncture headache should be regarded as a warning sign of an intracranial complication.
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10/52. Combined fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsy after lumbar puncture: a rare complication. A case report.

    Palsies of cranial nerves are well-known complications after lumbar puncture. Sixth nerve palsies are the most common. They normally occur 4 to 14 days after the lumbar puncture and spontaneously recover in a few weeks or months. The occurrence of a fourth nerve palsy following lumbar puncture however is extremely rare. We report on a patient who developed a combined contralateral fourth and sixth nerve palsy after lumbar puncture (syndrome of intracranial hypotension), requiring surgical correction for secondary diplopia.
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