Cases reported "Hematoma"

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1/41. Disorders in cerebellar ocular motor control. II. Macrosaccadic oscillation. An oculographic, control system and clinico-anatomical analysis.

    A distinctive cerebellar ocular motor disorder, macrosaccadic oscillation, evolved simultaneously with an acute cerebellar syndrome in 4 patients, 2 with haemorrhagic metastatic melanoma deep in the vermis, a third with a presumed cerebellar haematoma and a fourth with focal demyelinating disease. Ocular oscillations were conjugate, horizontal, symmetrical, occurred in bursts of several seconds duration, had amplitudes of 30 degrees to 50 degrees, and were evoked whenever the patient attempted to shift visual fixation or pursue a moving target. Photo-electric recordings in one patient with tumour defined features of this disorder of saccadic eye movement: (i) oscillation was composed of saccades, (ii) frequency was 2 Hz, (iii) bursts occurred with amplitude first increasing and then decreasing, (iv) intervals between beginnings of saccades averaged 260 ms and (v) eye position did not exhibit systematic drift during the intersaccadic period. These features documented the inreased gain and instability of the visually guided saccadic system. By using increased feed-forward gain in a sampled-data control model we simulated the pattern of macrosaccadic oscillation. We belive that the acute loss of the calibrator function of the cerebellum accounts for the gain abnormality underlying macrosaccadic oscillation.
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2/41. Primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty performed for acute myocardial infarction in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    A 72-year-old female with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) complained of severe chest pain. electrocardiography showed ST-segment depression and negative T wave in I, aVL and V4-6. Following a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), urgent coronary angiography revealed 99% organic stenosis with delayed flow in the proximal segment and 50% in the middle segment of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Subsequently, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for the stenosis in the proximal LAD was performed. In the coronary care unit, her blood pressure dropped. Hematomas around the puncture sites were observed and the platelet count was 28,000/mm3. After transfusion, electrocardiography revealed ST-segment elevation in I, aVL and V1-6. Urgent recatheterization disclosed total occlusion in the middle segment of the LAD. Subsequently, PTCA was performed successfully. Then, intravenous immunoglobulin increased the platelet count and the bleeding tendency disappeared. A case of AMI with ITP is rare. The present case suggests that primary PTCA can be a useful therapeutic strategy, but careful attention must be paid to hemostasis and to managing the platelet count.
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3/41. Cross-modal priming evidence for phonology-to-orthography activation in visual word recognition.

    Subjects were asked to indicate which item of a word/nonword pair was a word. On critical trials the nonword was a pseudohomophone of the word. RTs of dyslexics were shorter in blocks of trials in which a congruent auditory prime was simultaneously presented with the visual stimuli. RTs of normal readers were longer for high frequency words when there was auditory priming. This provides evidence that phonology can activate orthographic representations; the size and direction of the effect of auditory priming on visual lexical decision appear to be a function of the relative speeds with which sight and hearing activate orthography.
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4/41. Early rebleeding from intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: report of 20 cases and review of the literature.

    OBJECT: In this study the authors sought to estimate the frequency, seriousness, and delay of rebleeding in a homogeneous series of 20 patients whom they treated between May 1987 and May 1997 for arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) that were revealed by intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The natural history of intracranial dural AVFs remains obscure. In many studies attempts have been made to evaluate the risk of spontaneous hemorrhage, especially as a function of the pattern of venous drainage: a higher occurrence of bleeding was reported in AVFs with retrograde cortical venous drainage, with an overall estimated rate of 1.8% per year in the largest series in the literature. However, very few studies have been designed to establish the risk of rebleeding, an omission that the authors seek to remedy. methods: Presenting symptoms in the 20 patients (17 men and three women, mean age 54 years) were acute headache in 12 patients (60%), acute neurological deficit in eight (40%), loss of consciousness in five (25%), and generalized seizures in one (5%). Results of the clinical examination were normal in five patients and demonstrated a neurological deficit in 12 and coma in three. Computerized tomography scanning revealed intracranial bleeding in all cases (15 intraparenchymal hematomas, three subarachnoid hemorrhages, and two subdural hematomas). A diagnosis of AVF was made with the aid of angiographic studies in 19 patients, whereas it was a perioperative discovery in the remaining patient. There were 12 Type III and eight Type IV AVFs according to the revised classification of Djindjian and Merland, which meant that all AVFs in this study had retrograde cortical venous drainage. The mean duration between the first hemorrhage and treatment was 20 days. Seven patients (35%) presented with acute worsening during this delay due to radiologically proven early rebleeding. Treatment consisted of surgery alone in 10 patients, combined embolization and surgery in eight, embolization only in one, and stereotactic radiosurgery in one. Three patients died, one worsened, and in 16 (80%) neurological status improved, with 15 of 16 AVFs totally occluded on repeated angiographic studies (median follow up 10 months). CONCLUSIONS: The authors found that AVFs with retrograde cortical venous drainage present a high risk of early rebleeding (35% within 2 weeks after the first hemorrhage), with graver consequences than the first hemorrhage. They therefore advocate complete and early treatment in all cases of AVF with cortical venous drainage revealed by an ICH.
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5/41. Hepatic subcapsular hematoma after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for pancreatic stones.

    We present a patient with complication of huge hepatic subcapsular hematoma after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for pancreatic lithotripsy. The hematoma measured 78-110mm. Angiography showed a subcapsular hematoma, rather than a hematoma in the liver. In the arterial phase, the distal end of the small vessel showed spotty opacification similar to microaneurysma, suggesting that it was an injury caused by separation of the liver and its capsule, caused by the shock waves. The portal vein and hepatic vein were normal. After 8 weeks of conservative therapy, the hematoma was gradually absorbed and the patient was discharged. Eight months after the accident, the hematoma had decreased to 40mm in size. After 20 months, it was completely absorbed. The reported rate of renal subcapsular hematoma after ESWL for renal or ureter stones is 0.1%-0.7%. To date, however, only five cases of hepatic subcapsular hematoma after right renal stone disintegration have been reported. This is the first report of hepatic subcapsular hematoma after ESWL for pancreatic stones.
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6/41. Hypofibrinogenemia in an individual with 2 coding (gamma82 A-->G and Bbeta235 P-->L) and 2 noncoding mutations.

    We investigated the molecular basis of hypofibrinogenemia in a man with a normal thrombin clotting time. Protein analysis indicated equal plasma expression of 2 different Bbeta alleles, and dna sequencing confirmed heterozygosity for a new Bbeta235 P-->L mutation. Protein analysis also revealed a novel gamma(D) chain, present at a ratio of 1:2 relative to the gamma(A) chain. mass spectrometry indicated a 14 d decrease in the gamma(D)-chain mass, and dna sequencing showed this was caused by a novel gamma82 A-->G substitution. dna sequencing established heterozygosity for 2 further mutations: T-->C in intron 4 of the Aalpha gene and A-->C in the 3' noncoding region of the Bbeta gene. Studies on the man's daughter, together with plasma expression levels, discounted both the Aalpha and Bbeta mutations as the cause of the low fibrinogen, suggesting that the gamma82 mutation caused the hypofibrinogenemia. This was supported by analysis of 31 normal controls in whom the Bbeta mutations were found at polymorphic levels, with an allelic frequency of 5% for the Bbeta235 mutation and 42% for the Bbeta 3' untranslated mutation. The gamma82 mutation was, however, unique to the propositus. Residue gamma82 is located in the triple helix that separates the E and D domains, and aberrant packing of the helices may explain the decreased fibrinogen concentration. (Blood. 2000;95:1709-1713)
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7/41. hemobilia, intrahepatic hematoma and acute thrombosis with cavernomatous transformation of the portal vein after percutaneous thermoablation of a liver metastasis.

    A 53-year-old-man underwent US-guided percutaneous thermal ablation with a cooled-tip needle of three liver metastases from gastric cancer. Six days later, the patient was re-admitted for melena, scleral jaundice, and anemia. Abdominal US disclosed echogenic material in the gallbladder lumen (hemobilia) and a focal lesion with mixed echotexture in segment III (hepatic hematoma). On day 5 portal cavernomatosis was diagnosed at US and confirmed by color Doppler and a helical CT exam. The case described emphasizes that radio-frequency interstitial hyperthermia may cause not only traumatic injury of the liver parenchyma but also thermally mediated damage of vascular structures.
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8/41. enoxaparin associated with hugh abdominal wall hematomas: a report of two cases.

    enoxaparin is a low-molecular-weight heparin used for prophylaxis against deep venous thrombosis. Indications include hip and knee replacement surgery, risk of deep venous thrombosis during abdominal surgery, and prevention of ischemic complications of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Its efficacy in the prevention of the above complications has been previously studied; however, the liberal use of enoxaparin is not without incident. Complications of enoxaparin include hemorrhage, thrombocytopenia, and local reactions. Since 1993 there have been more than 40 reports of epidural or spinal hematoma formation with the concurrent use of enoxaparin and spinal/epidural anesthesia or spinal puncture. Herein reported are two cases of abdominal wall hematomas in patients receiving prophylaxis with enoxaparin. Both patients sustained an unexplained fall in the hematocrit and abdominal pain. A CT scan confirmed the diagnosis. One patient recovered uneventfully; however, the other patient, on chronic hemodialysis, became hemodynamically unstable and hyperkalemic and sustained a fatal cardiac arrhythmia. An extensive review of the literature revealed no similar cases of abdominal wall hematomas associated with enoxaparin although other complications, including spinal and epidural hematomas, psoas hematomas, and skin necrosis have been reported. The extended use of enoxaparin as an anticoagulant requires the physician to be vigilant of these rare complications. Bleeding can occur at any site during therapy with enoxaparin. An unexplained fall in the hematocrit or blood pressure should lead to a search for a bleeding site.
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9/41. An unusual cause of pelvic mass.

    BACKGROUND: pelvic pain with an associated pelvic mass is a common problem in the emergency room (ER) or physician's office. Concerns about ectopic pregnancy, infection, or malignancy usually dominate the diagnostic evaluation. At the same time, domestic violence as the cause of a pelvic mass is seldom suspected by physicians. CASE: A 38-year-old woman came to the ER with left lower quadrant pain and a left pelvic mass. After four hospital days and multiple diagnostic imaging studies, the diagnosis of hematoma caused by physical trauma to the abdomen was elucidated. CONCLUSION: Proper diagnosis of the cause of the pelvic mass could have been made earlier by careful attention to the social history and by recognizing the high incidence of domestic violence as opposed to the relative infrequency of some other diagnostic entities for which the patient was tested.
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10/41. coronary sinus rupture with retrograde cardioplegia.

    coronary sinus (CS) rupture occurring during retrograde cardioplegia (RCP) is a rare complication. patients with left ventricular hypertrophy are at higher risk for injury to the CS. The patient was a 66-year-old female with hypertension, ischemic cardiomyopathy and dysrhythmias, who had evidence of an anterior wall myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure and angina. During coronary artery bypass surgery, antegrade cardioplegia was initially administered, but aortic insufficiency prevented adequate myocardial cooling. RCP was then administered and the heart cooled appropriately. After approximately 300 ml of blood cardioplegic solution had been given, the CS pressure suddenly dropped from 30 mmHg to zero. RCP administration was stopped, and the surgeon palpated a hematoma over the area of the CS, which later ruptured upon rotation of the heart. A primary repair could not be performed, so a pericardial patch was placed over the area of disruption, which appeared to provide adequate hemostasis. The patient was weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), but began to bleed freely from the CS distal to the pericardial patch. The patient was placed back on CPB to allow further repair of the CS, but the tissues were thin and friable and the ventricle disassociated from the ventricular septum. The situation was deemed not salvageable and further attempts at repair were stopped. The perfusionist should monitor infusion pressures and the CS waveform during RCP delivery. Changes in the waveform may indicate cannula malposition, loss of balloon seal, or, more rarely, CS rupture; such changes should prompt immediate cessation of RCP delivery.
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