Cases reported "Hematuria"

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1/149. Gross hematuria of uncommon origin: the nutcracker syndrome.

    Left renal vein hypertension, also called "nutcracker phenomenon" or "nutcracker syndrome," is a rare vascular abnormality responsible for gross hematuria. The phenomenon is attributable to the idiopathic decrease in the angle between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery with consequent compression of the left renal vein. The entrapment of the left renal vein is not easily detectable by ordinary diagnostic procedures. We report two cases of gross hematuria (persistent in one patient and recurrent in the other) caused by "nutcracker phenomenon." In both cases, no remarkable findings were obtained from medical history, urinary red blood cells morphology, repeated urinalysis, pyelography, cystoscopy, or ureteroscopy. Left renal vein dilation in one case was found with a computed tomography (CT) scan performed on the venous tree of left kidney. The diagnosis of "nutcracker phenomenon" was confirmed by renal venography with measurement of pressure gradient between left renal vein and inferior vena cava in both cases. In one case, the diagnosis was complicated by the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine. The "nutcracker phenomenon" is probably more common than thought. early diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary diagnostic procedures and complications such as the thrombosis of the left renal vein. Many procedures are available to correct the compression of the left renal vein entrapped between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery: Gortex graft vein interposition, nephropexy, stenting, and kidney autotransplantation. After surgery, gross hematuria ceases in almost all patients.
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2/149. Diagnosis and management of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 in infancy.

    We report a case of a 6-month-old infant who presented with failure to thrive due to end-stage renal disease as a result of primary hyperoxaluria type 1. The infant was managed with a combined daily hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis prescription in order to manage the total body oxalate burden. Medical management included oral pyridoxine, aggressive hydration and nutritional supplementation via an enteral feeding tube. At one year of age the infant underwent a combined liver/kidney transplantation with intra- and daily post-operative hemodialysis to prevent oxalate deposition in the newly transplanted organs. The post-operative course was complicated by gross hematuria and increased hyperoxaluria, requiring an increase in hydration and thiazide diuretics. This infant received a combination of dialysis modalities which was designed to lower the potential oxalate burden prior to transplantation. This case illustrates the difficulty in medical management of an infant pre- and post-combined liver/kidney transplantation.
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3/149. Heavy chain deposition disease: the disease spectrum.

    A 45-year-old white woman was found to have microscopic hematuria during her annual physical examination. After a negative urologic workup, she returned 5 months later with nephrotic syndrome, renal insufficiency, and hypocomplementemia. Renal biopsy showed a nodular sclerosing glomerulopathy that could not be further characterized because of inadequate tissue for immunofluorescence. The patient returned 8 months later with chronic renal failure. A repeat renal biopsy showed deposits composed of immunoglobulin g (IgG) heavy chain and complement components C3 and C1 along glomerular, tubular, and vascular basement membranes, with negativity for kappa and lambda light chains, findings consistent with heavy chain deposition disease (HCDD). The heavy chain subclass was exclusively IgG3. Staining with monoclonal antibodies to epitopes of the constant domains of IgG heavy chain showed a CH1 deletion, indicating a truncated heavy chain. On review of the previously reported cases of HCDD, common clinical presentations include nephrotic syndrome, renal insufficiency, hematuria, and, in some cases, hypocomplementemia. In most patients, the hematologic disorder is mild, without overt myeloma. light microscopy shows a nodular sclerosing glomerulopathy, and heavy chain deposits are detectable within basement membranes throughout the kidney by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. There is no effective treatment for this condition, and virtually all patients progress to chronic renal failure.
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4/149. Traumatic hematuria in patients with polycystic kidney disease.

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is the most prevalent hereditary disorder in this country and a common cause of chronic renal failure. patients frequently present with hematuria as the initial manifestation of PKD. We describe a patient with gross hematuria after blunt trauma who was found to have previously undiagnosed PKD. We review present diagnostic and treatment modalities and suggest potential management strategies for surgeons caring for patients presenting with traumatic hematuria and PKD.
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5/149. Subcapsular hemorrhage of adult Wilms' tumor.

    Wilms' tumor is a rare malignancy of kidney in adults. It usually cannot be differentiated from other renal masses preoperatively. This is a presentation of a case of adult Wilms' tumor who developed spontaneous hemorrhage during radiological evaluation. As tumor rupture can change the stage of the tumor and alter the prognosis of the patient, urgent work-up and treatment is advised.
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6/149. Non-traumatic renal arteriopelvic fistula.

    PURPOSE: In the present paper, we report on a 34-year-old female with macroscopic hematuria due to a nontraumatic renal arteriopelvic fistula (APF). The patient initially presented at another hospital with asymptomatic macroscopic hematuria. Following abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and laboratory data, no abnormal findings were seen. Therefore, the patient was referred to Teine Keijinkai Hospital for a more precise evaluation of the urinary tract and vascular abnormality. methods/RESULTS: Endoscopically, there was bleeding from the right ureteral orifice, so the patient was admitted for further examination. No abnormal findings were seen on urinary cytology and following an intravenous pyelogram. A selective right lower polar renal arteriogram revealed arterial extravasation directly into the pelvis before the venous phase, so APF of the kidney was diagnosed. The patient had no history of urinary tract trauma, so the APF was thought to be idiopathic. After transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with a gelatine sponge, macroscopic and microscopic hematuria disappeared and a low-density area was seen in the middle pole of the right kidney in an abdominal CT scan 4 days after TAE. This was thought to be renal infarction due to TAE. CONCLUSIONS: After discharge, the patient had no further hematuria.
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7/149. Polypoid fibro-haemangioma of the kidney in a child with gross haematuria.

    We present a case of gross haematuria in a 5-year-old boy caused by a fibro-haemangioma of the lower part of the pelvis of the right kidney. pathology of this rare condition and differential diagnosis from other uncommon renal pelvic lesions occurring in childhood are discussed.
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8/149. Haemorrhagic cystitis associated with adenovirus in a patient with AIDS treated for a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Adenovirus-induced haemorrhagic cystitis has been reported chiefly in bone marrow or kidney transplant recipients. We report here on an hiv-positive patient treated for a Burkitt's lymphoma who developed gross haematuria associated with fever and burning urination. Usual causes of haematuria were ruled out: lithiasis, urinary tract lesions, glomerulonephritis, mycobacterium and schistosoma infections, and drug toxicity. Adenovirus was detected by cellular cultures and BK/jc virus dna sequences were detected using a polymerase chain reaction method. Because BK/JC virus shedding is very common (75%) in hiv patients receiving chemotherapy, our data strongly suggest that adenovirus was responsible for the haemorrhagic cystitis in our patient. In conclusion, adenovirus should be considered as a potential cause of haemorrhagic cystitis in AIDS patients whose immunosuppression is aggravated by cytotoxic drugs.
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9/149. Botryoid wilms tumor: case report and review of literature.

    A rare case of botryoid wilms tumor is presented. The main clinical manifestations were persistent low-grade fever, malaise, and proteinuria associated with microhematuria. ultrasonography revealed an echogenic mass in the right kidney, and a contrast-enhanced mass was found in the dilated collecting system by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. The surgically resected tumor was a polypoid, light-yellow, glistening mass that occupied a large part of the renal pelvis and originated from the pelvicaliceal wall. Part of the tumor extended to the proximal ureter, resulting in hydronephrosis in the involved kidney. No parenchymal lesion was observed. Microscopic examination revealed epithelial, stromal, and blastemal components, which indicated wilms tumor. infection had occurred in the hydronephrotic kidney, which presumably had caused the major presenting symptoms. The prognosis of our patient and previously reported cases of botryoid wilms tumor was good compared with that of typical wilms tumor, since the botryoid type can be detected at an early stage.
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10/149. Abdominal aortic aneurysm with aorta-left renal vein fistula with left varicocele.

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm with spontaneous aorto-left renal vein fistula is a rare but well-described clinical entity usually with abdominal pain, hematuria, and a nonfunctioning left kidney. This report describes a 44-year-old man with left-sided groin pain and varicocele who was treated with conservative measures only. The diagnosis was eventually made when he returned with microscopic hematuria, elevated serum creatinine level, and nonfunction of the left kidney; computed tomography scan demonstrated a 6-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm, a retroaortic left renal vein, and an enlargement of the left kidney. This patient represents the youngest to be reported with aorto-left renal vein fistula and the second case with a left-sided varicocele.
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