Cases reported "Hematuria"

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1/207. Gross hematuria of uncommon origin: the nutcracker syndrome.

    Left renal vein hypertension, also called "nutcracker phenomenon" or "nutcracker syndrome," is a rare vascular abnormality responsible for gross hematuria. The phenomenon is attributable to the idiopathic decrease in the angle between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery with consequent compression of the left renal vein. The entrapment of the left renal vein is not easily detectable by ordinary diagnostic procedures. We report two cases of gross hematuria (persistent in one patient and recurrent in the other) caused by "nutcracker phenomenon." In both cases, no remarkable findings were obtained from medical history, urinary red blood cells morphology, repeated urinalysis, pyelography, cystoscopy, or ureteroscopy. Left renal vein dilation in one case was found with a computed tomography (CT) scan performed on the venous tree of left kidney. The diagnosis of "nutcracker phenomenon" was confirmed by renal venography with measurement of pressure gradient between left renal vein and inferior vena cava in both cases. In one case, the diagnosis was complicated by the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine. The "nutcracker phenomenon" is probably more common than thought. early diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary diagnostic procedures and complications such as the thrombosis of the left renal vein. Many procedures are available to correct the compression of the left renal vein entrapped between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery: Gortex graft vein interposition, nephropexy, stenting, and kidney autotransplantation. After surgery, gross hematuria ceases in almost all patients.
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keywords = urinary
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2/207. Cytologic diagnosis of metastatic ovarian adenocarcinoma in the urinary bladder: a case report and review of the literature.

    A 53-yr-old woman with a 13-mo history of recurrent ovarian papillary serous adenocarcinoma presented with persistent microscopic hematuria. The patient was undergoing chemotherapy for her recurrent ovarian tumor when she was referred to the urology service for microscopic hematuria. An intravenous pyelogram was normal. cystoscopy was performed, as well as a urinary bladder washing and mucosal biopsies for examination. adenocarcinoma similar to the patient's primary ovarian tumor was detected in both cytology and histopathology specimens. Ovarian carcinoma comprises 1.3-4.0% of all metastatic neoplasms to the urinary bladder and is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of a cytologic finding of adenocarcinoma in urine specimens of female patients, where it accounts for an even higher percentage of cases (1 of 3 adenocarcinoma diagnoses in a series of 4,677 urine specimens from female patients).
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keywords = urinary
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3/207. Non-traumatic renal arteriopelvic fistula.

    PURPOSE: In the present paper, we report on a 34-year-old female with macroscopic hematuria due to a nontraumatic renal arteriopelvic fistula (APF). The patient initially presented at another hospital with asymptomatic macroscopic hematuria. Following abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and laboratory data, no abnormal findings were seen. Therefore, the patient was referred to Teine Keijinkai Hospital for a more precise evaluation of the urinary tract and vascular abnormality. methods/RESULTS: Endoscopically, there was bleeding from the right ureteral orifice, so the patient was admitted for further examination. No abnormal findings were seen on urinary cytology and following an intravenous pyelogram. A selective right lower polar renal arteriogram revealed arterial extravasation directly into the pelvis before the venous phase, so APF of the kidney was diagnosed. The patient had no history of urinary tract trauma, so the APF was thought to be idiopathic. After transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with a gelatine sponge, macroscopic and microscopic hematuria disappeared and a low-density area was seen in the middle pole of the right kidney in an abdominal CT scan 4 days after TAE. This was thought to be renal infarction due to TAE. CONCLUSIONS: After discharge, the patient had no further hematuria.
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keywords = urinary
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4/207. placenta percreta invading the bladder causing exsanguinating hemorrhage.

    We report a case of placenta percreta invading the urinary bladder that presented as gross hematuria. The patient had normal cystoscopic findings initially and other radiological investigations were reported as normal. However, she had catastrophic second hemorrhage and in spite of bilateral internal iliac artery ligation, hysterectomy and bladder closure with resuscitative measures, she could not be saved.
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keywords = urinary
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5/207. Haemorrhagic cystitis associated with adenovirus in a patient with AIDS treated for a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Adenovirus-induced haemorrhagic cystitis has been reported chiefly in bone marrow or kidney transplant recipients. We report here on an hiv-positive patient treated for a Burkitt's lymphoma who developed gross haematuria associated with fever and burning urination. Usual causes of haematuria were ruled out: lithiasis, urinary tract lesions, glomerulonephritis, mycobacterium and schistosoma infections, and drug toxicity. Adenovirus was detected by cellular cultures and BK/jc virus dna sequences were detected using a polymerase chain reaction method. Because BK/JC virus shedding is very common (75%) in hiv patients receiving chemotherapy, our data strongly suggest that adenovirus was responsible for the haemorrhagic cystitis in our patient. In conclusion, adenovirus should be considered as a potential cause of haemorrhagic cystitis in AIDS patients whose immunosuppression is aggravated by cytotoxic drugs.
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keywords = urinary
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6/207. Primary extra-nodal lymphoma of the urinary bladder.

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the urinary bladder is rare. Only a few cases have been reported. We report the case of a woman with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of urinary bladder and review the literature.
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ranking = 6
keywords = urinary
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7/207. A case of metastatic malignant melanoma presenting with hematuria.

    We report a case of metastatic malignant melanoma that presented with macroscopic hematuria and lower urinary tract symptoms. Effective palliation of urinary tract symptoms was achieved with transurethral resection of metastatic lesions in the bladder. However, the patient was lost due to widespread disease despite systemic therapy. Solitary or multiple dark blue-black nodular or vegetating lesions encountered during cystoscopy should raise the suspicion of metastasis of malignant melanoma and be investigated accordingly.
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ranking = 2
keywords = urinary
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8/207. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder. Two cases diagnosed by urinary cytology.

    BACKGROUND: Primary small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder is a rare but important entity. We report two cases of SCC of the bladder diagnosed by urinary cytology. CASES: A 71-year-old male (case 1) and a 79-year-old female (case 2) presented with asymptomatic gross hematuria. Urinary cytology in case 1 showed the presence of a few undifferentiated malignant small cells and many transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) cells with a bloody and necrotic background. The former cells were small and round, with naked, hyperchromatic nuclei and finely granular chromatin. Pathologic diagnosis after total cystectomy was TCC > SCC > adenocarcinoma, T2M0N0. Urinary cytology of case 2 showed the presence of many undifferentiated malignant small cells and many TCC cells with or without squamous metaplasia. Cytologic features of the former cells were almost the same as those in case 1. Moreover, these cells were neuroendocrine marker positive by immunocytochemistry. Pathologic diagnosis after tumor resection was SCC and TCC > squamous cell carcinoma, T1b. CONCLUSION: The prognosis of primary SCC of the bladder is usually poor. Because our cases were found by urinary cytology at a relatively early stage, both have been well, without any evidence of recurrence, 30 and 25 months after surgery even without adjuvant therapy.
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ranking = 6
keywords = urinary
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9/207. radiation-induced pseudocarcinomatous proliferations of the urinary bladder: a report of 4 cases.

    Four cases of radiation cystitis that caused diagnostic difficulty because of an epithelial proliferation with architectural complexity and reactive cytologic atypia are described. The patients, 2 male, 2 female, were from 43 to 77 years of age. Two presented with hematuria. cystoscopy disclosed abnormalities in 3 patients. Microscopic examination showed irregularly shaped and arranged aggregates of epithelial cells in the upper and mid zones of the lamina propria. The cells, which typically showed at least mild, and sometimes severe, pleomorphism, were usually transitional, but squamous differentiation was seen focally in 3 cases. Ulceration of the overlying epithelium was present in all cases and was prominent and associated with conspicuous fibrin and hemorrhage in one of them. edema of the lamina propria was present in 3 cases, whereas lamina propria fibrosis and chronic inflammation were present in all cases. The presence in all 4 cases of vascular ectasia and other changes characteristic of radiation injury, such as atypical fibroblasts, prompted investigation of the clinical history in 2 cases in which the pathologist was unaware that the patient had received radiation. Pseudocarcinomatous proliferations in the bladder caused by radiation injury have received limited attention in the literature. Our cases illustrate the potential diagnostic errors with which these lesions may be associated.
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ranking = 4
keywords = urinary
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10/207. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy control of intractable hematuria following radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. A novel approach.

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the utility of endoscopic sclerotherapy using 1% ethoxysclerol for the control of intractable hematuria following post-irradiation telangiectatic cystitis (PTC). methods: Our experience of treating 4 patients (one female and three male) with massive exsanguinating hematuria resulting from PTC, using a combined intralesional and perilesional injection of 1% ethoxysclerol, is presented. observation on the distribution, grading of telangiectasis and pattern of bleeding are made. RESULTS: A dramatic and lasting cessation of the hematuria in all the 4 patients was achieved during the follow-up period varying from 1 month to 4 years. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy is a simple, highly effective, less invasive new technique in the management of massive and intractable hematuria due to radiation-induced telangiectasia of the urinary bladder.
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keywords = urinary
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