Cases reported "Hematuria"

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1/907. Acute renal failure in an adult patient with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura after episode of macroscopic hematuria.

    A case of severe prolonged acute renal failure with a histological picture of acute tubulointerstitial lesions in an adult patient with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura after an episode of macroscopic hematuria is described. The macroscopic hematuria lasted only for 5 days and the renal biopsy was performed 50 days after the end of the macroscopic hematuria. Restoration of renal function was not complete six months after the beginning of improvement. Fewer than 65 cases of acute renal failure due to tubulointerstitial nephritis in patients with glomerulonephritis and after episode of macroscopic hematuria have been described in the international literature. Only one of these patients was suffering from Henoch-Schoenlein purpura. ( info)

2/907. Gross hematuria of uncommon origin: the nutcracker syndrome.

    Left renal vein hypertension, also called "nutcracker phenomenon" or "nutcracker syndrome," is a rare vascular abnormality responsible for gross hematuria. The phenomenon is attributable to the idiopathic decrease in the angle between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery with consequent compression of the left renal vein. The entrapment of the left renal vein is not easily detectable by ordinary diagnostic procedures. We report two cases of gross hematuria (persistent in one patient and recurrent in the other) caused by "nutcracker phenomenon." In both cases, no remarkable findings were obtained from medical history, urinary red blood cells morphology, repeated urinalysis, pyelography, cystoscopy, or ureteroscopy. Left renal vein dilation in one case was found with a computed tomography (CT) scan performed on the venous tree of left kidney. The diagnosis of "nutcracker phenomenon" was confirmed by renal venography with measurement of pressure gradient between left renal vein and inferior vena cava in both cases. In one case, the diagnosis was complicated by the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine. The "nutcracker phenomenon" is probably more common than thought. early diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary diagnostic procedures and complications such as the thrombosis of the left renal vein. Many procedures are available to correct the compression of the left renal vein entrapped between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery: Gortex graft vein interposition, nephropexy, stenting, and kidney autotransplantation. After surgery, gross hematuria ceases in almost all patients. ( info)

3/907. carboplatin-related hematuria and acute renal failure.

    cisplatin is a potent tubular toxin with a high incidence of nephrotoxicity. carboplatin is considered less nephrotoxic but can still cause tubular injury and interstitial nephritis in patients who have been previously treated with cisplatin. The affected individuals usually have nonoliguric renal failure with a urine output of more than a liter per day. We present a 57-year-old white woman with no history of renal disease who underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for stage IC ovarian carcinoma. One month later, she received chemotherapy with paclitaxel (Taxol) and carboplatin. On the following day, she developed frank hematuria and flank pain associated with a diminished urine output. Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) showed bilateral hydronephrosis with a total blockage of dye flow at the level of intraureteral lucencies consistent with bilateral blood clots. Her coagulation profile and uric acid was normal. Her acute renal failure (ARF) spontaneously resolved in the following 24 hours, with a brisk diuresis presumably due to clot lysis. The follow-up IVP showed a resolution of obstructive changes. A review of the literature shows a previous case in which high doses of carboplatin were implicated as the cause of hemorrhagic cystitis, presumably by toxicity to transitional epithelium of the bladder. We believe that the current case represents carboplatin-induced damage to the transitional epithelium in the renal pelvi and ureters causing gross hematuria and blood clots, resulting in bilateral ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis. ( info)

4/907. Diagnosis and management of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 in infancy.

    We report a case of a 6-month-old infant who presented with failure to thrive due to end-stage renal disease as a result of primary hyperoxaluria type 1. The infant was managed with a combined daily hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis prescription in order to manage the total body oxalate burden. Medical management included oral pyridoxine, aggressive hydration and nutritional supplementation via an enteral feeding tube. At one year of age the infant underwent a combined liver/kidney transplantation with intra- and daily post-operative hemodialysis to prevent oxalate deposition in the newly transplanted organs. The post-operative course was complicated by gross hematuria and increased hyperoxaluria, requiring an increase in hydration and thiazide diuretics. This infant received a combination of dialysis modalities which was designed to lower the potential oxalate burden prior to transplantation. This case illustrates the difficulty in medical management of an infant pre- and post-combined liver/kidney transplantation. ( info)

5/907. Cytologic diagnosis of metastatic ovarian adenocarcinoma in the urinary bladder: a case report and review of the literature.

    A 53-yr-old woman with a 13-mo history of recurrent ovarian papillary serous adenocarcinoma presented with persistent microscopic hematuria. The patient was undergoing chemotherapy for her recurrent ovarian tumor when she was referred to the urology service for microscopic hematuria. An intravenous pyelogram was normal. cystoscopy was performed, as well as a urinary bladder washing and mucosal biopsies for examination. adenocarcinoma similar to the patient's primary ovarian tumor was detected in both cytology and histopathology specimens. Ovarian carcinoma comprises 1.3-4.0% of all metastatic neoplasms to the urinary bladder and is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of a cytologic finding of adenocarcinoma in urine specimens of female patients, where it accounts for an even higher percentage of cases (1 of 3 adenocarcinoma diagnoses in a series of 4,677 urine specimens from female patients). ( info)

6/907. Bleeding from self-administration of phenindione: a detailed case study.

    A young woman presented with a 2 year history of a severe bleeding disorder and marked deficiencies in all four vitamin-K-dependent factors. Metabolic studies with tracer doses of tritium-labelled vitamin K1 suggested that the patient might be taking an oral anticoagulant; and subsequently her plasma was found to contain a substance identical to phenindione in its spectrophotometric and chromatographic properties. The half-disappearance times of factors II, IX, X were measured after the administration of a concentrate of these factors and were found to conform with published figures. The concentrate controlled the patient's excessive bruising and prolonged skin and gingival bleeding. It would therefore seem that factor vii may not be essential in reversal of the bleeding disorder induced by anticoagulant overdose. ( info)

7/907. Expandable metallic stent placement for nutcracker phenomenon.

    A 40-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic gross hematuria caused by the nutcracker phenomenon. Despite treatment with hemostatic agents and injection of silver nitrate into the renal pelvis, the hematuria had continued, and severe anemia (hematocrit 17%) had developed. We performed expandable metallic stent (EMS) placement across the left renal vein. Although mild hematuria continued, the anemia resolved after this interventional radiotherapy. EMS placement is a minimally invasive therapy for the nutcracker phenomenon. ( info)

8/907. An unusual cause of haematuria.

    A case of gross haematuria is described in a young woman. This was initially attributed to the use of analgesics. Subsequent history and investigation confirmed that the cause for the haematuria was sickle cell trait occurring in an individual in whom it was not initially suspected. ( info)

9/907. Heavy chain deposition disease: the disease spectrum.

    A 45-year-old white woman was found to have microscopic hematuria during her annual physical examination. After a negative urologic workup, she returned 5 months later with nephrotic syndrome, renal insufficiency, and hypocomplementemia. Renal biopsy showed a nodular sclerosing glomerulopathy that could not be further characterized because of inadequate tissue for immunofluorescence. The patient returned 8 months later with chronic renal failure. A repeat renal biopsy showed deposits composed of immunoglobulin g (IgG) heavy chain and complement components C3 and C1 along glomerular, tubular, and vascular basement membranes, with negativity for kappa and lambda light chains, findings consistent with heavy chain deposition disease (HCDD). The heavy chain subclass was exclusively IgG3. Staining with monoclonal antibodies to epitopes of the constant domains of IgG heavy chain showed a CH1 deletion, indicating a truncated heavy chain. On review of the previously reported cases of HCDD, common clinical presentations include nephrotic syndrome, renal insufficiency, hematuria, and, in some cases, hypocomplementemia. In most patients, the hematologic disorder is mild, without overt myeloma. light microscopy shows a nodular sclerosing glomerulopathy, and heavy chain deposits are detectable within basement membranes throughout the kidney by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. There is no effective treatment for this condition, and virtually all patients progress to chronic renal failure. ( info)

10/907. A case of perirenal hemangioma mimicking renal cell carcinoma.

    PURPOSE: We present a rare case of perirenal hemangioma that was detected incidentally. methods/RESULTS: Radiographic examinations revealed a 3.5 cm mass at the left renal hilum adjacent to the left renal parenchyma, which was difficult to differentially diagnose from renal cell carcinoma. Tumor resection was performed successfully. CONCLUSIONS: There was no recurrence observed 14 months after surgery. ( info)
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