Cases reported "Hemiplegia"

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1/393. MR and CT imaging in the Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome. Report of three cases and contribution to pathogenesis and differential diagnosis.

    Cerebral hemiatrophy or Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome is a condition characterized by seizures, facial asymmetry, contralateral hemiplegia or hemiparesis, and mental retardation. These findings are due to cerebral injury that may occur early in life or in utero. The radiological features are unilateral loss of cerebral volume and associated compensatory bone alterations in the calvarium, like thickening, hyperpneumatization of the paranasal sinuses and mastoid cells and elevation of the petrous ridge. The authors describe three cases. Classical findings of the syndrome are present in variable degrees according to the extent of the brain injury. Pathogenesis is commented.
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2/393. A case of the subacute brainstem encephalitis.

    A case of brainstem encephalitis of undetermined etiology is reported in 66-year-old woman who had a sudden onset of illness with left abducens palsy, nystagmus and ataxia. The symptoms progressed to complete paralysis of eye movements, dysphagia and left hemiparesis with generalized hyperreflexia. Examination of CSF, CT scan and MRI of the brain were normal. The patient died 4 months after onset of disease. Neuropathologic study disclosed in the brainstem numerous perivascular and nodular inflammatory cell infiltrations composed predominantly of lymphocytes T and B. Most intensive inflammation concerned midbrain and pontine tegmentum and to a lesser degree medulla oblongata, pontine nuclei and cerebellar nuclei. basal ganglia, cerebral and cerebellar cortex were unaffected. Neuropathological finding was reminiscent of brainstem encephalitides related to viral infection or to paraneoplastic syndrome. However, HSV-1, EBV, and CMV antigens were not detected by immunohistochemistry, as well as evidences of malignancy were not present in this case.
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3/393. Downbeat nystagmus caused by thiamine deficiency: an unusual presentation of CNS localization of large cell anaplastic CD 30-positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    A 24-year-old woman with a large cell anaplastic CD 30-positive T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) developed downbeat nystagmus, anisocoria, and oscillopsia. Prior to overt cerebral invasion by NHL, she had a thiamine deficiency with very low thiamine concentrations in the CSF, probably caused by protracted vomiting and increased vitamin B1 consumption by intrathecal tumor cells. We believe that her neurologic symptoms were caused -- at least partly -- by thiamine deficiency, as she reacted well to thiamine supplementation at the beginning of treatment.
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4/393. Reversible cerebral ischemia in patients with pheochromocytoma.

    Cerebral ischemia and symptoms of stroke can occur as a rare manifestation in patients with pheochromocytoma. We describe a 45-year-old woman who was admitted because of a right-sided hemiparesis due to an ischemic lesion in the left hypothalamus. The clinical diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma was proven by highly elevated urinary catecholamines and confirmed histologically after operation. The successful removal of the tumor led to the almost complete recovery of the neurological deficiencies. It is of vital importance to know this atypical presentation of pheochromocytoma. The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma should be suspected in patients with focal cerebral symptoms, particularly in the presence of intermittent hypertension or other paroxysmal symptoms suggestive of pheochromocytoma.
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5/393. Localized scleroderma associated with progressing ischemic stroke.

    We present a 73 year-old Japanese woman with localized scleroderma involving the right side of the scalp accompanied by continuous tingling pain, who developed insidiously progressive left hemiparesis. In magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, an infarct first appeared in the watershed region of the right middle cerebral artery territory and subsequently extended to deep white matter accompanied by scattered hemorrhages. Focal stenosis in the M2 portion of the right middle cerebral artery was revealed on magnetic resonance angiography, and the distal vessels were only shown faintly. A biopsy specimen from the sclerotic scalp lesion showed obvious thickening of vessel walls and mild mononuclear cell infiltration. We believe that the progressing ischemic stroke was caused by hemodynamic disturbances from localized sclerotic obstruction of the middle cerebral artery, with an autoimmune pathogenesis.
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6/393. Application of a rheolytic thrombectomy device in the treatment of dural sinus thrombosis: a new technique.

    We present a novel application of a transvascular rheolytic thrombectomy system in the treatment of symptomatic dural sinus thrombosis in a 54-year-old woman with somnolence and left-sided weakness. The diagnosis of bilateral transverse and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis was made and the patient was treated with anticoagulant therapy. After an initial period of improvement, she became comatose and hemiplegic 8 days after presentation. After excluding intracerebral hemorrhage by MR imaging, we performed angiography and transfemoral venous thrombolysis with a hydrodynamic thrombectomy catheter, followed by intrasinus urokinase thrombolytic therapy over the course of 2 days. This technique resulted in dramatic sinus thrombolysis and near total neurologic recovery. Six months after treatment, the patient showed mild cognitive impairment and no focal neurologic deficit. Our preliminary experience suggests that this technique may play a significant role in the endovascular treatment of this potentially devastating disease.
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7/393. basal ganglia germinoma with progressive cerebral hemiatrophy.

    The authors describe a 7-year-old Chinese-American female with a germinoma of the basal ganglia who presented with progressive hemiparesis and cerebral hemiatrophy. The additional finding of markedly elevated antiphospholipid antibodies suggests the possibility of an autoimmune pathogenesis for the progressive cerebral atrophy, as well as the later development of cognitive decline, tics, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors.
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8/393. Moyamoya syndrome in a patient with congenital human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    A 10-year-old boy with congenital human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection developed recurrent episodes of left hemiparesis at age 7 years. The progression of his disease was followed by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, and cerebral angiography. The series of images showed progressive stenosis of both carotid arteries at the suprasellar origin with involvement of his anterior and middle cerebral arteries, while prominent collateral vessels developed from his external carotid supply through ophthalmic and middle meningeal arteries. The pattern of cerebrovascular disease is consistent with moyamoya syndrome. We suggest that further studies on the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular disease in patients with hiv could be helpful in understanding the cause of moyamoya disease as well. Also, with the various advances in treatment of hiv, neurovascular complications could be seen more frequently as the long-term survival in these patients improves.
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9/393. Hemichorea and hemiballism associated with contralateral hemiparesis and ipsilateral basal ganglia lesions.

    We report on two patients with unilateral hyperkinetic movement disorders associated with contralateral hemiparesis and ipsilateral basal ganglia lesions. The first patient, a 47-year-old woman, had a low-grade astrocytoma located in the right basal ganglia extending into the subthalamic area and the cerebral peduncle. She presented with left hemiparesis, right hemichorea, and intermittent right-sided tremor at rest. The second patient, a 85-year-old woman, had hypertensive hemorrhage to the right posterior basal ganglia, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the lateral thalamus, and the subthalamic region with accompanying intraventricular bleeding. She developed right-sided transient hemichorea-hemiballism. A videotape illustration of one of the patients is provided. The literature on the rare occurrence of ipsilateral hemichorea-hemiballism is discussed and possible pathomechanisms are reviewed. We postulate that hemiparesis contralateral to basal ganglia lesions might have a conditioning effect on the appearance of ipsilateral dyskinetic movement disorders.
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10/393. Aggravation of brainstem symptoms caused by a large superior cerebellar artery aneurysm after embolization by Guglielmi detachable coils--case report.

    An 81-year-old male presented with right oculomotor nerve paresis and left hemiparesis caused by a mass effect of a large superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. Endovascular treatment was performed using Guglielmi detachable coils. The patient subsequently suffered aggravation of the mass effect 3 weeks after the embolization. Bilateral vertebral artery occlusion was performed, which decreased the cerebral edema surrounding the aneurysm, but his neurological symptoms did not improve. Parent artery occlusion is recommended as the first choice of treatment for an unclippable large or giant aneurysm causing a mass effect on the brainstem.
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