Cases reported "Hemiplegia"

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1/108. A case of the subacute brainstem encephalitis.

    A case of brainstem encephalitis of undetermined etiology is reported in 66-year-old woman who had a sudden onset of illness with left abducens palsy, nystagmus and ataxia. The symptoms progressed to complete paralysis of eye movements, dysphagia and left hemiparesis with generalized hyperreflexia. Examination of CSF, CT scan and MRI of the brain were normal. The patient died 4 months after onset of disease. Neuropathologic study disclosed in the brainstem numerous perivascular and nodular inflammatory cell infiltrations composed predominantly of lymphocytes T and B. Most intensive inflammation concerned midbrain and pontine tegmentum and to a lesser degree medulla oblongata, pontine nuclei and cerebellar nuclei. basal ganglia, cerebral and cerebellar cortex were unaffected. Neuropathological finding was reminiscent of brainstem encephalitides related to viral infection or to paraneoplastic syndrome. However, HSV-1, EBV, and CMV antigens were not detected by immunohistochemistry, as well as evidences of malignancy were not present in this case.
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2/108. Surgical treatment of internal carotid artery anterior wall aneurysm with extravasation during angiography--case report.

    A 54-year-old female presented subarachnoid hemorrhage from an aneurysm arising from the anterior (dorsal) wall of the internal carotid artery (ICA). During four-vessel angiography, an extravasated saccular pooling of contrast medium emerged in the suprasellar area unrelated to any arterial branch. The saccular pooling was visualized in the arterial phase and cleared in the venophase during every contrast medium injection. We suspected that the extravasated pooling was surrounded by hard clot but communicated with the artery. Direct surgery was performed but major premature bleeding occurred during the microsurgical procedure. After temporary clipping, an opening of the anterior (dorsal) wall of the ICA was found without apparent aneurysm wall. The vessel wall was sutured with nylon thread. The total occlusion time of the ICA was about 50 minutes. Follow-up angiography demonstrated good patency of the ICA. About 2 years after the operation, the patient was able to walk with a stick and to communicate freely through speech, although left hemiparesis and left homonymous hemianopsia persisted. The outcome suggests our treatment strategy was not optimal, but suture of the ICA wall is one of the therapeutic choices when premature rupture occurs in the operation.
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keywords = visual
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3/108. Familial hemiplegic migraine with cerebellar ataxia and paroxysmal psychosis.

    Familial hemiplegic migraine is a rare autosomal dominant disorder associated with stereotypic neurologic aura phenomena including hemiparesis. So far two chromosomal loci have been identified. Families linked to the chromosome 19 locus display missense mutations within the CACNL1A4 gene. Here we report on a family with familial hemiplegic migraine and cerebellar ataxia with recurrent episodes of acute paranoid psychosis with anxiety and visual hallucinations associated with migraine attacks. Based on the clinical and haplotype evidence indicating linkage to chromosome 19 in this family, we hypothesize that a dysfunction of the mutated calcium channel may be involved not only in the development of hemiplegic migraine but also in the acute psychotic episodes observed in these patients.
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ranking = 0.030801373645014
keywords = visual
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4/108. Ictal hemiparesis.

    Two subjects with ictal hemiparesis are described. Both children presented with evolving paresis associated with seizure activity. Structural neuroimaging remained consistently normal, although EEG demonstrated slow-wave activity, and SPECT scanning in one child showed perfusion asymmetry. Both children had resolution of the hemiparesis when seizure activity was adequately controlled. The historically proposed pathophysiology of ictal hemiparesis is that of inhibition of the somatosensory and motor areas of the cortex. The presence of an evolving hemiparesis and seizure activity associated with normal neuroimaging should prompt consideration of ictal hemiparesis. Confirmation of this rare diagnosis can only be made when seizure control leads to resolution of the paresis.
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5/108. multiple sclerosis with extensive lesions left hemiplegia, mental dysfunction and retrobulbar neuritis.

    multiple sclerosis (MS) is usually diagnosed on the basis of the typical clinical course, with remission and exacerbation in multiple parts of the central nervous system (CNS). Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made a large contribution to the diagnosis of patients with MS. But it is difficult to make a definite diagnosis due to clinical variability of the disease and variable MRI findings. We report the case of a 26-year-old woman who developed progressive left hemiplegia, mental dysfunction, and had extensive bilateral cerebral white matter lesions diagnosed by brain MRI. Complete recovery from the left hemiplegia followed the use of corticosteroid, and her brain MRI findings also improved after medication. Early in the clinical course it was difficult to differentiate between multiple sclerosis and granulomatous angiitis of the CNS. After recovery from the first episode of left hemiplegia and mental dysfunction, she developed acute visual disturbance five months after her first admission. Readmission followed and her retrobulbar neuritis was successfully treated by methylpredonisolone pulse therapy. In summary, she experienced two episodes of neurological deficit, had left hemiplegia and mental dysfunction associated with multiple lesions in bilateral cerebral white matter in brain MRI, and the left retrobulbar neuritis with delay of P100 by visual evoked potential study. Due to these two episodes we concluded that she had multiple sclerosis. Though the initial diagnosis was difficult, prompt treatment and close follow-up was important, since multiple sclerosis and granulomatous angiitis of the CNS can both recur.
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ranking = 0.061602747290028
keywords = visual
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6/108. Ipsilateral hemiparesis after putaminal hemorrhage due to uncrossed pyramidal tract.

    OBJECTIVE: Previous case reports supported the presence of the uncrossed pyramidal tract in exceptional patients. However, most of these case reports have not fully discussed involvement of the motor cortex controlling the ipsilateral limbs. DESIGN AND METHOD: The authors investigated a 62-year-old man who developed right hemiparesis after right putaminal hemorrhage by using MRI, transcranial magnetic stimulation, functional MRI (fMRI), and sensory evoked potentials. He had moderate weakness including the face, spasticity with brisk deep tendon reflexes and Babinski sign, and impaired vibration and position sense, all on the right side. RESULT: A MRI study showed hemorrhage in the right putamen and the wedge-shaped medulla. A fMRI study during a sequential finger opposition task showed activation in the motor cortex ipsilateral to the finger movements, but not on the contralateral side. Sensory evoked potentials showed cortical response ipsilateral to the side of stimulation. CONCLUSION: The pyramidal tract and the dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway did not cross in the medulla in this patient. In view of the presence of the abnormal shape in the medulla and congenital scoliosis, a congenital factor might be responsible for the uncrossed pyramidal tract and dorsal column-medial lemniscus in this patient.
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7/108. Functional MRI evidence of cortical reorganization in upper-limb stroke hemiplegia treated with constraint-induced movement therapy.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to test constraint-induced movement therapy for chronic upper-limb stroke hemiparesis and to investigate the neural correlates of recovery with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in two subjects. Both subjects had been discharged from traditional therapy because no further improvement was anticipated. DESIGN: Constraint-induced movement therapy consisted of 6 hr of daily upper-limb training for 2 wk; a restrictive mitt was worn on the nonparetic limb during waking hours. Functional MRI was performed on a 1.5-T MRI with echo-planar imaging; at the same time, the subjects attempted sequential finger-tapping. RESULTS: Compared with baseline, performance time improved an average of 24% immediately after training and also continued to improve up to 33% 3 mo after training. Lift, grip strength, and motor activity Log scores likewise improved. Initially, on functional MRI, subject 1 activated scattered regions in the ipsilateral posterior parietal and occipital cortices. Subject 2 showed almost no areas of significant activation. After training, subject 1 showed activity bordering the lesion, bilateral activation in the association motor cortices, and ipsilateral activation in the primary motor cortex. Subject 2 showed activation near the lesion site. CONCLUSION: Constraint-induced movement therapy produced significant functional improvement and resulted in plasticity as demonstrated by functional MRI.
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8/108. Pure motor hemiplegia due to pyramidal infarction.

    A 77-year-old man suddenly developed left hemiplegia without sensory impairment, visual or speech difficulties, loss of consciousness, or ataxia. He died one month later of pulmonary embolism, and a cystic infarction in the right medullary pyramid was the only lesion in the corticospinal system.
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ranking = 0.030801373645014
keywords = visual
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9/108. Long-term results of functional hemispherectomy for intractable seizures.

    OBJECTIVE: From May 1989 to April 1997, functional hemispherectomy was performed in 8 cases of intractable seizures. We retrospectively analyzed our experience to evaluate the seizure control and complications of this surgical technique. methods: Following Dr. Rasmussen's model of functional hemispherectomy or performing a modification of this operation, we removed the sensorimotor cortex and temporal lobe associated with disconnection of the remaining portions of the frontal lobe and parieto-occipital lobe. RESULTS: All the patients were followed up for 3-11 years (mean 6.7 years). Satisfactory seizure control was obtained in all the cases. life quality improved and patients worked or studied well after the operations. No cases of superficial cerebral hemosiderosis were found. CONCLUSION: Modified functional hemispherectomy may allow the patients to lead more independent lives by leading to a cessation or reduced frequency of seizures.
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10/108. Spontaneous thrombosis of a residual arteriovenous malformation in eloquent cortex after surgery: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: The presence of a residual arteriovenous malformation (AVM) on postoperative angiograms is typically an indication for prompt return to the operating room to complete resection, because of the risk of early hemorrhage. This approach, however, may involve risks of neurological deficits when the residual AVM is in eloquent cortex. We present a case of complete thrombosis of a residual AVM after surgery. This residual AVM tissue was located in eloquent cortex. Complete spontaneous thrombosis of residual AVMs after surgery has only rarely been reported. This phenomenon raises questions regarding the most appropriate management for residual AVMs in eloquent cortex. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The patient was a 43-year-old, right-handed, male patient with an AVM centered in the left precentral gyrus. The patient presented with medically intractable seizures and progressive right hemiparesis. After AVM resection, angiography revealed a residual AVM with early venous drainage. angiography performed 1 week later demonstrated a persisting AVM nidus without early venous drainage. angiography performed 3 months later demonstrated complete thrombosis of the residual AVM. INTERVENTION: The patient has been monitored for more than 1 year, without additional symptoms or therapy. CONCLUSION: We continue to advocate prompt return to the operating room when postoperative angiography reveals a residual AVM with persistent shunting. When the residual AVM is in eloquent cortex and is small, with a single draining vein, however, observation of the patient (with strict blood pressure control) and repeat angiography after 1 week represent an alternative strategy that is supported by this case report. As this case demonstrates, it is possible for small residual AVMs to thrombose. This may avert the need for reoperation for residual AVMs in eloquent cortex, with the potential for neurological deficits.
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