Cases reported "Hemiplegia"

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1/71. A case of the subacute brainstem encephalitis.

    A case of brainstem encephalitis of undetermined etiology is reported in 66-year-old woman who had a sudden onset of illness with left abducens palsy, nystagmus and ataxia. The symptoms progressed to complete paralysis of eye movements, dysphagia and left hemiparesis with generalized hyperreflexia. Examination of CSF, CT scan and MRI of the brain were normal. The patient died 4 months after onset of disease. Neuropathologic study disclosed in the brainstem numerous perivascular and nodular inflammatory cell infiltrations composed predominantly of lymphocytes T and B. Most intensive inflammation concerned midbrain and pontine tegmentum and to a lesser degree medulla oblongata, pontine nuclei and cerebellar nuclei. basal ganglia, cerebral and cerebellar cortex were unaffected. Neuropathological finding was reminiscent of brainstem encephalitides related to viral infection or to paraneoplastic syndrome. However, HSV-1, EBV, and CMV antigens were not detected by immunohistochemistry, as well as evidences of malignancy were not present in this case.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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2/71. magnetic resonance angiography of primary varicella vasculitis: report of two cases.

    Two patients with onset of hemiparesis 3 weeks following primary varicella infection demonstrated contralateral temporal lobe and basal ganglia infarctions on magnetic resonance imaging. In both cases, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was performed and demonstrated flow abnormalities ipsilateral to the infarcts. Digital subtraction angiography was performed in one case; however, the findings were significantly less conspicuous than those of the MRA. MRA proved to be sensitive to the diagnosis of varicella-induced vasculitis in two consecutive cases and provided a noninvasive means of following the progression of the disease process in response to therapy.
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ranking = 0.32814194204724
keywords = varicella
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3/71. Functional hemispherectomy: radical treatment for Rasmussen's encephalitis.

    Rasmussen's encephalitis is a progressive, debilitating disease that usually appears in the pediatric population but also may affect adults. Uncontrolled seizures, cognitive decline, and a progressive hemiparesis accompany this disorder. Treatment options are limited and consist of medical management, which is somewhat experimental and ineffective; the use of either intravenous antiviral agents or steroids; or surgical resection of the affected hemisphere. patients undergoing hemispherectomy for Rasmussen's encephalitis are complex. nurses caring for these patients require a high degree of knowledge and specialized skills. Patient outcome is highly affected by the knowledge and skill of the entire team of healthcare professionals needed to manage these patients.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = encephalitis
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4/71. Temporal artery biopsy in herpes zoster ophthalmicus with delayed arteritis.

    A 58-year-old man developed herpes zoster ophthalmicus with delayed hemiparesis. Temporal artery biopsy confirmed the presence of a vasculitis. Electron microscopy of the temporal artery failed to reveal viral particles. herpes zoster ophthalmicus with delayed arteritis appeared to be a contiguous spread of vasculitis to the carotid system and not a direct viral invasion.
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ranking = 4.2710276628947
keywords = herpes zoster, zoster, herpes
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5/71. Acute hemiplegia associated with herpes zoster infection in children: report of one case.

    Herpes zoster infection has been rarely reported to cause angiitis of the central nervous system in children. We describe a 4-year, 8-month-old female with acute hemiplegia and central facial palsy 6 weeks after she had had zoster ophthalmicus. The findings of magnetic resonance angiography, the clinical picture, and a preceding history of herpes zoster ophthalmicus suggested zoster vasculitis. Herpes zoster vasculitis is thus another consideration when examining a child with acute hemiplegia and a recent herpes zoster infection.
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ranking = 5.7289951337129
keywords = herpes zoster, zoster, herpes
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6/71. Unilateral occlusion of the middle cerebral artery after varicella-zoster virus infection.

    We report a 4-year-old child who developed hemiplegia 6 months after varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection. cerebral angiography showed complete occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery with basal moyamoya vessels. Elevation of anti-VZV antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid indicated central nervous system involvement. The association between VZV cerebral angitis and unilateral occlusion of right middle cerebral artery is discussed.
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ranking = 1.351597936657
keywords = zoster, varicella
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7/71. Granulomatous angiitis of the central nervous system associated with herpes zoster.

    Granulomatous angiitis of central nervous system (CNS) is a rare inflammatory disease of blood vessels mostly confined to CNS. We describe a case which presented with right sided hemiplegia with aphasia, after herpes zoster ophthalmicus. CT scan and MRI brain showed a large left sided infarct in the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. MRI angiography revealed narrowing and thinning of left internal carotid artery (ICA) and to a lesser extent, left MCA suggestive of granulomatous vasculitis. Herpes zoster is often associated with major CNS involvement and a vascular etiology was previously postulated. Recent pathological reports suggest that cerebral angiitis secondary to herpes virus infection may be more common than realised.
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ranking = 4.2892189621728
keywords = herpes zoster, zoster, herpes
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8/71. Rasmussen's encephalitis followed by lupus erythematosus.

    A 6-year-old female presented with right hemichorea, initially thought to be post-streptococcal, which subsequently progressed to a right dystonic hemiplegia. At 7 1/2 years she developed right focal and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. These became intractable. A brain biopsy was consistent with Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE). At 9 1/2 years the child underwent a left hemispherectomy making a good recovery with resolution of seizures. At 12 years she presented with recurrent episodes of abdominal pain, fever, and malar rash with serological evidence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A possible link between RE and SLE is discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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9/71. Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome and elevated interleukin-6: case report.

    We report a 2-year-old boy who developed hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome with left-sided hemiplegia after a seizure lasting 35 minutes. The interleukin-6 level in the cerebrospinal fluid 2 hours after seizure onset was elevated to levels seen in patients with encephalitis. At 1 year after onset of the seizure, the patient remained hemiplegic on the left side, and magnetic resonance imaging showed severe right hemispheric atrophy. Acute changes seen on imaging studies and electroencephalograms in this patient were consistent with seizure-induced brain damage. Elevation of cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 may be related to the severe neurologic sequelae of our patient despite the relatively short seizure duration.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = encephalitis
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10/71. Hypercytokinemia in hemiconvulsions-hemiplegia syndrome associated with dual infection with varicella zoster and Epstein-Barr viruses.

    Hemiconvulsions-hemiplegia (HH) syndrome is an acquired condition in which hemiplegia develops after a preceding febrile unilateral status epilepticus in a previously healthy child. Although viral encephalitis or vascular diseases may be the underlying etiology, the pathogenesis remains unknown in the majority of cases. We measured both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels in a girl with HH syndrome, and found elevated plasma concentrations of soluble interleukin-2 receptor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and a slightly increased plasma level of interleukin-6. Furthermore, she had a high serum concentration of soluble e-selectin, which is a marker of inflammatory endothelial activation. These findings suggest that proinflammatory cytokine-induced cerebrovascular endothelial injury could play a role in the pathogenesis of HH syndrome.
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ranking = 1.4765166759965
keywords = zoster, encephalitis, varicella, varicella zoster
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