Cases reported "Hemoglobin SC Disease"

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1/5. role of phlebotomy in the management of hemoglobin sc disease: case report and review of the literature.

    Marked variability is a keynote in the disease course of patients with hemoglobin SC (Hb SC) and hemoglobin S/beta( )-thalassemia (Hb S/beta( )-thal), with some patients having a frequency of complications and painful episodes similar to patients with homozygous sickle cell (Hb SS) disease. One possible explanation is that the higher hematocrit in these syndromes may contribute to an increase in blood viscosity, leading to vaso-occlusive pain episodes as well as an increased incidence of thromboembolic complications and retinopathy. We present a patient with Hb SC disease with an excellent baseline functional status who developed splenic infarction at a high altitude. Following splenectomy, the patient developed a sustained increase in hematocrit, an increase in the frequency of painful episodes, as well as new-onset dizziness and malaise. We initiated a therapeutic phlebotomy program in order to lower the hematocrit to pre-splenectomy values, as well as to induce iron deficiency. Repeated phlebotomy resulted in a dramatic decrease in symptoms. Our patient no longer requires narcotic analgesics for pain, has resolution of constitutional symptoms, and has not required further hospitalizations for vaso-occlusive pain crises. The correlation between symptoms and hematocrit levels supports the importance of blood viscosity in contributing to this patient's symptoms. A trial of phlebotomy to reduce viscosity in patients with higher hematocrit values should be considered as an intervention for symptomatic patients with sickle cell disease.
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2/5. A fatal case of acute splenic sequestration in a 53-year-old woman with sickle-hemoglobin c disease.

    Acute splenic sequestration crisis (ASSC) is a common complication in infants and young children with homozygous sickle cell disease, but it is infrequent in patients with sickle-hemoglobin C (SC) disease. When it does occur in such patients, it is often associated with exposure to high altitude, either by air travel or mountainous environment. Since 1970, only 15 cases of ASSC have been reported in patients with SC disease who were not exposed to a high altitude. Nine of these were children and adolescents aged 11 to 18 years, while six were adults aged 21 to 44 years. A review of these cases shows only two fatalities from ASSC: a 12-year-old West Indian girl living in england and a 13-year-old black girl in the united states. In this report, we describe the sudden death from ASSC of a 53-year-old black woman with SC disease at low altitude. To our knowledge, death from ASSC has not been previously reported in an adult patient with SC disease.
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keywords = altitude
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3/5. Case report: splenic infarction and acute splenic sequestration in adults with hemoglobin sc disease.

    While acute splenic sequestration and splenic infarction are commonly observed in infants and young children with sickle cell anemia, they are rarely experienced by adult hemoglobin S homozygotes because the recurrent splenic infarction that takes place during childhood is typically followed by scarring, atrophy, and splenic fibrosis. Both acute splenic sequestration and splenic infarction do remain relatively common in adults with the other sickle hemoglobinopathies. These episodes are almost certainly a consequence of the persistently enlarged and distensible spleens that often remain present in these conditions. In this report, the authors describe two adult patients with hemoglobin sc disease: one who developed acute splenic sequestration and one with splenic infarction. In neither case was there a history of recent air travel or exposure to altitude. The clinical course of these two syndromes is presented, and the hematologic, radiologic, and pathologic manifestations are discussed. Because they can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from one another, and because a failure to identify acute splenic sequestration can be catastrophic, these two entities must be included in the differential diagnosis for any hemoglobin SC patient who present with an unexplained fall in hemoglobin, left upper quadrant pain, unexplained fever, or symptomatic splenomegaly.
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4/5. splenic infarction at low altitude in a child with hemoglobin S-C disease.

    We describe a 15-year-old black boy with hemoglobin S-C disease living in Atlanta (altitude 1,034 ft), with no prior history of aircraft or mountain travel, who developed splenic infarction. The clinical picture was characterized by severe left upper quadrant abdominal pain, fever, splenomegaly, and hematologic and scintigraphic evidence of functional asplenia. The diagnosis was suggested by liver/spleen scintigraphy and further confirmed by ultrasonography and computerized tomography (CT) of the spleen. Treatment consisted of analgesics, intravenous fluids, and short-term antibiotic therapy. The child recovered without sequelae.
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ranking = 5
keywords = altitude
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5/5. Mild splenic sequestration crises in sickle-hemoglobin c disease.

    Acute splenic sequestration crisis ( ASSC ), a common complication in homozygous sickle cell anemia, has been described infrequently in sickle-hemoglobin C (SC) disease in the absence of high altitude exposure. In this report, we describe three children with hemoglobin sc disease who developed episodes of ASSC that were milder than those generally described in sickle cell anemia. In one patient, an antecedent triggering event was not recognized. The other two children may have had a predisposing cause for massive intrasplenic sickling in that one had an associated mononucleosis syndrome and the other an episode of hypovolemic shock following severe epistaxis. ASSC may occur in patients with SC disease and does not necessarily require a hypoxic trigger associated with high altitudes.
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