Cases reported "Hemoglobinopathies"

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1/135. Haemoglobin LeporeBoston in a Turkish family.

    Haemoglobin Lepore was demonstrated in four members of a Turkish family. It was found in the heterozygote state and was associated with erythrocyte morphology similar to that observed in the beta thalassaemia trait. The average concentration of haemoglobin Lepore was 8.1% of the total haemoglobin. Structural analysis showed that the Lepore haemoglobin was the LeporeBoston type. This is the first reported instance of the occurrence of haemoglobin Lepore in turkey. ( info)

2/135. Pituitary deficiency and lack of gonads in an XY pseudohermaphrodite with beta 39/lepore haemoglobinopathy.

    We describe the occurrence of hypothyroidism and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in an XY pseudohermaphrodite subject affected by beta-thalassemia. The patient, reared as female, diagnosed at 14 months of age as having a beta 39/Lepore hemoglobinopathy, treated with multiple transfusion therapy, was referred at age of 15 years because of delayed puberty. Complete endocrine evaluation showed low levels, both basal and after combined LHRH-TRH and hCG stimuli, of FSH, LH, TSH, estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), progesterone (P), androstenedione (A), and FT4 levels, and normal PRL, cortisol, 17OHP and ACTH levels. Imaging studies (ultrasound, magnetic resonance, radioisotope scanning and gonadal vessels phlebography) did not show internal genitalia and gonads. karyotype resulted 46,XY. PCR amplification of the SRY gene confirmed the presence of the y chromosome. female genitalia without uterus in a subject with y chromosome SRY gene, and no detectable testes indicate a condition of male pseudohermaphroditism associated with testicular regression. Low gonadotropin and sex steroid levels are suggestive of combined acquired hypothalamic-pituitary and gonadal impairment, due to iron deposition in both organs. We cannot exclude congenital failure of testosterone synthesis and action in this case, because lack of gonads is an unusual finding in thalassemic hypogonadic subjects. ( info)

3/135. Hemoglobin S/O(Arab): thirteen new cases and review of the literature.

    Hemoglobin S/O(Arab) (Hb S/O(Arab)) is a rare compound heterozygous hemoglobinopathy characterized by the presence of two variant beta-globin chains: beta6Glu --> Val (Hb S) and beta121Glu --> Lys (Hb O(Arab)). The diagnosis of Hb S/O(Arab) requires electrophoresis on both cellulose acetate and citrate agar, since Hb O(Arab) co-migrates with Hb C at alkaline pH and close to Hb S at acidic pH. To date only case reports and small series of patients with Hb S/O(Arab) have been described. To better characterize the clinical and laboratory aspects of this unusual disorder, we reviewed the Duke University Medical Center experience. We identified 13 African-American children and adults with Hb S/O(Arab) ranging in age from 2.7 to 62.5 years. All patients had hemolytic anemia with a median Hb of 8.7 gm/dL (range 6.1-9.9 gm/dL), and a median reticulocyte count of 5.8% (range 1.2-10.3%). The peripheral blood smear typically showed sickled erythrocytes, target cells, polychromasia, and nucleated red blood cells. All 13 patients have had significant clinical sickling events including acute chest syndrome (11), recurrent vasoocclusive painful events (10), dactylitis (7), gallstones (5), nephropathy (4), aplastic crises (2), avascular necrosis (2), leg ulcers (2), cerebrovascular accident (CVA) (1), osteomyelitis (1), and retinopathy (1). Four patients have died, including two from pneumococcal sepsis/meningitis at ages 5 and 10 years, one of acute chest syndrome at age 14 years, and one of multiorgan failure at age 35 years. We conclude that Hb S/O(Arab) disease is a severe sickling hemoglobinopathy with laboratory and clinical manifestations similar to those of homozygous sickle cell anemia. ( info)

4/135. Altered erythropoiesis and increased hemolysis in hemoglobin m Akita (M Hyde Park beta92 His replaced by Tyr) disease.

    Hb M Akita disease is a cyanotic hemoglobinopathy found in Akita Prefecture, japan. The abnormal hemoglobin was found to be the same as Hb M Hyde Park (beta92 His replaced by Tyr) by chemical analysis in 1967. In this disease signs of accelerated hemolysis (serum bilirubin, 2.4 mg/dl; splenomegaly, 2 finger breadths; Hb, 10.7 g/dl; reticulocyte index, 2.7) were noted, but the causes of its slight anemia were revealed to be fairly complex by ferrokinetic study, RBC life-span measurement, and 99mTc myeloscintigram. The anemia in this disease is caused not only by shortened erythrocyte survival (T 1/2 = 11.5 days by 51Cr-tagging method) and sequestration of red cells in the spleen (spleen: liver ratio = 2.5 approximately 3.0 by 51Cr-surface counting), but also by slow supply of erythrocytes to the peripheral blood from the bone marrow, presumably, related to the existence of unstable Hb M Akita and its derivative (Hb Akita) in the erythroid cells. Both Carrell's isopropanol test and Heinz body formation test were positive. In spite of maximally increased total erythropoiesis (8 times as high as the normal level; M:E ratio = 0.22:1.0), supply of red cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood was significantly decreased. The distribution of hematopoietic sites throughout the body was reasonably uniform. ( info)

5/135. Hb Sitia [beta128(H6)Ala-->Val]: an unstable variant with a substitution in the alpha1beta1 interface.

    Hb Sitia [beta128(H6)Ala-->Val] was found in a Greek female with slightly reduced red blood cell indices. The abnormal hemoglobin was indistinguishable from Hb A by electrophoresis but eluted after Hb A on cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography. dna sequence analysis revealed a GCT-->GTT mutation at codon 128, which is predicted to encode an Ala-->Val substitution. This was confirmed by mass spectrometry analyses of the beta-globin chain. Since alanine at beta128(H6) interacts with several amino acids of the alpha1beta1 contact, its replacement by a larger residue results in a mild instability of the molecule and slight modifications of the oxygen binding properties. ( info)

6/135. Hb Mont Saint Aignan [beta128(H6)Ala-->Pro]: a new unstable variant leading to chronic microcytic anemia.

    Hb Mont Saint-Aignan [beta128(H6)Ala-->Pro] is a mildly unstable variant, associated with hemolytic anemia, marked microcytosis and increased alpha/beta biosynthetic ratio (1.55 versus 1.1 /- 0.1 in the control). The abnormal chain was isolated by selective precipitation with isopropanol and the structural modification determined by protein chemistry methods (reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry). Possible mechanisms underlying the beta( )-thalassemia-like expression of this variant are discussed. ( info)

7/135. Direct dna analysis in a new Italian carrier of Hb-Belfast: beta 15 (A12) Trp-->Arg.

    A young woman aged 21 was found to be a new carrier of Hb-Belfast: beta 15 (A 12) Trp-->Arg, and the characteristics of her hemoglobinopathy were not different from those of the four cases so far described: mild hemolysis with molecular instability of the abnormal Hb, red cells inclusion bodies, and slight alterations of some functional parameters of whole blood. On this occasion, direct dna analysis indicated the genomic nucleotide replacement of the disease: TGG-AGG. This was inherited by the mother, originating from Bari (Apulia). ( info)

8/135. Hemoglobinopathy York [beta146 (HC3) His==>Pro]: first report of a family history.

    The rare hemoglobinopathies with abnormal oxygen binding are usually characterized by erythropoietin-mediated erythrocytosis. Bare et al. first described a hemoglobinopathy with mild erythrocytosis in a 22-year-old Caucasian woman in 1976. These authors called the abnormal hemoglobin Hb York. Hb York is characterized by a mutation at the beta146 position that changes histidine into proline. A second case of Hb York was observed by Kosugi et al. in 1983. To the best of our knowledge, no further cases have been reported. We have encountered a new case of Hb York, which was detected by agar gel electrophoresis at pH 6.0. Analysis of dna sequences revealed a CAC-->CCC mutation in codon 146. The proportion of Hb York was approximately 50%. Analysis of oxygen transport function showed a leftward shift of the sigmoidal O2-dissociation curve. P50 was reduced to 15.5 mmHg. Investigation of family members revealed Hb York in the patient's sister, two daughters and a grandson. In retrospect, the mother of the patient may also have been affected. The mode of inheritance is autosomal dominant. ( info)

9/135. A double heterozygous hemoglobin. Hemoglobin OIndonesia and hemoglobin DPunjab in an individual.

    During surveys for abnormal hemoglobins in iran, an individual was found to have four electrophoretically distinct hemoglobins. The abnormality was found only in the father of the propositus, in two of the father's sisters, and in three brothers and sisters of the propositus. Investigations revealed that the four hemoglobin components are the result of a double heterozygosity between an alpha-chain variant (Hb OIndonesia) and a beta-chain variant (Hb DPunjab). The presence of the abnormal hemoglobins was not associated with hemolytic disorders or obvious clinical symptoms. ( info)

10/135. Complex interactions of deltabeta hybrid haemoglobin (Hb Lepore-Hollandia) Hb E (beta(26G-->A)) and alpha thalassaemia in a Thai family.

    Haemoglobin Lepore-Hollandia is an extremely rare condition in which a small deletion gives rise to a deltabeta hybrid, beta-like globin. There are two single reports of patients from South pacific islands and bangladesh. We describe a family from central thailand, in which this Hb Lepore-Hollandia interacts with a common beta globin variant (beta(E) resulting from the codon 26, G-->A mutation) and alpha( ) thalassaemia (alpha(3.7)). This intriguing interaction caused a troublesome diagnosis, as the two proband brothers were diagnosed as having Hb E/beta thalassaemia. Molecular analysis of genomic dna performed in this study allowed the definitive diagnosis of this complicated interaction. Such studies are required in the diagnosis of thalassaemia and haemoglobinopathies for particular regions like South-east asia, where many different genotypes may give rise to haemoglobin disorders. ( info)
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