Cases reported "Hemolysis"

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1/29. Altered erythropoiesis and increased hemolysis in hemoglobin m Akita (M Hyde Park beta92 His replaced by Tyr) disease.

    Hb M Akita disease is a cyanotic hemoglobinopathy found in Akita Prefecture, japan. The abnormal hemoglobin was found to be the same as Hb M Hyde Park (beta92 His replaced by Tyr) by chemical analysis in 1967. In this disease signs of accelerated hemolysis (serum bilirubin, 2.4 mg/dl; splenomegaly, 2 finger breadths; Hb, 10.7 g/dl; reticulocyte index, 2.7) were noted, but the causes of its slight anemia were revealed to be fairly complex by ferrokinetic study, RBC life-span measurement, and 99mTc myeloscintigram. The anemia in this disease is caused not only by shortened erythrocyte survival (T 1/2 = 11.5 days by 51Cr-tagging method) and sequestration of red cells in the spleen (spleen: liver ratio = 2.5 approximately 3.0 by 51Cr-surface counting), but also by slow supply of erythrocytes to the peripheral blood from the bone marrow, presumably, related to the existence of unstable Hb M Akita and its derivative (Hb Akita) in the erythroid cells. Both Carrell's isopropanol test and Heinz body formation test were positive. In spite of maximally increased total erythropoiesis (8 times as high as the normal level; M:E ratio = 0.22:1.0), supply of red cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood was significantly decreased. The distribution of hematopoietic sites throughout the body was reasonably uniform.
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2/29. Hyperhemolytic transfusion reaction in sickle cell disease.

    BACKGROUND: An atypical form of life-threatening hemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR) in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) has been well described in the literature. Continuation of blood transfusion may be lethal, as it can further exacerbate hemolysis. The pathophysiologic mechanism of HTR is not well understood. case reports: Two cases of severe HTR in SCD after the transfusion of compatible RBC units are reported. hemolysis of both autologous and transfused cells was documented in Case 1 by urine Hb high-performance liquid chromotography. Multispecific HLA antibodies were identified in Case 1. Reticulocytopenia was noted in both cases during the acute hemolytic process. This was followed by a rise in reticulocyte count during receipt of IVIG and steroid therapy. bone marrow examination during reticulocytopenia in Case 2 showed erythroid hyperplasia. CONCLUSION: In SCD, both mature sickle cells and sickle reticulocytes adhere more readily to macrophages. In view of the bone marrow aspiration results, it appears that the recipients' HbS cells are destroyed by hyperactive macrophages and that the reticulocytopenia observed during HTR is likely to be due to peripheral consumption (i.e., destruction by macrophages), rather than suppression of erythropoiesis. Cessation of hemolysis during IVIG and steroid treatment may be due to IVIG's blocking of the adhesion of sickle cells and reticulocytes to macrophages, together with steroid suppression of macrophage activity.
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3/29. Refractory hyperhaemolysis in a patient with beta-thalassaemia major.

    We report the case of a 1-year-old girl with newly diagnosed beta-thalassaemia major. Following an initial blood transfusion with phenotypically matched blood, she developed a haemolytic anaemia which progressed with subsequent transfusions. The Direct Antiglobulin test (DAT) was strongly positive with C3d and weakly with IgG. The only free antibodies detected were a weak anti-H and a weak cold auto-antibody, which did not exhibit a wide thermal range. The indirect Donath-Landsteiner and Ham's tests were negative. There was no sustained clinical response to steroids, immunoglobulin infusions or splenectomy. An HLA identical sibling donor was available for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and the haemolysis resolved during the immunosuppressive transplant conditioning. Such hyperhaemolysis without significant red cell alloantibodies has previously been reported in patients with sickle cell anaemia, but only rarely in patients with beta-thalassaemia major.
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4/29. Fatal hemolysis after high-dose etoposide: is benzyl alcohol to blame?

    A 53-year-old African-American man with relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma developed seizures and respiratory arrest 2 hours after an infusion of high-dose etoposide in preparation for an autologous bone marrow transplant. Laboratory tests revealed both rapid hemolysis and severe metabolic acidosis. The patient died the following day. Based on toxicities observed, we suspect that our patient possessed an ethnic polymorphism of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase. Further research is required to determine the relationship between the benzyl alcohol metabolic rate and toxicity and genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase in African-Americans.
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5/29. Posttransplant immune-mediated hemolysis.

    BACKGROUND: Immune-mediated hemolysis is a well-recognized complication of transplantation, but few reports have drawn together the different mechanisms that could be involved. STUDY DESIGN AND methods: The clinical and laboratory records of three patients are used to illustrate different types and complexities of posttransplant immune-mediated RBC destruction. RESULTS: Patient 1 received bone marrow from an HLA-matched, unrelated donor. At 7 months after transplant, his Hb level fell to 50 g per L. The serum contained warm autoantibodies, and the DAT was strongly positive for IgG, IgM, and C3d; an eluate yielded IgG and IgM autoantibodies. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia was diagnosed. Patient 2, blood group A, experienced severe hemolysis 14 days after receiving a lung from a group O donor. The DAT was positive for IgG. serum and RBC eluate contained anti-A produced by immunocompetent B cells in the transplanted lung-this was the passenger lymphocyte syndrome. Patient 3 experienced posttransplant hemolysis caused by two different immune mechanisms. Originally group A, D- with anti-C, -D, -E, she received a peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplant from her HLA-identical group A, D son. Six months later, chimerism was evident; the remaining recipient marrow was still producing antibodies that destroyed D RBCs made by the transplant. Later, autoimmune hemolytic anemia also developed; the DAT became positive for IgG, and warm autoantibodies were eluted from D- RBCs. CONCLUSION: An understanding of the causes and circumstances under which posttransplant immune hemolysis arises is required for proper management. As more patients become long-term survivors of unrelated bone marrow and/or PBPC transplants, chimerism and complex serologic problems will become more common.
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6/29. Microangiopathic hemolysis refractory to plasmapheresis responding to docetaxel and cisplatin: a case report.

    We report the case of a 56-yr-old woman with adenocarcinoma of unknown origin metastatic to the bone marrow presenting with a thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-like syndrome refractory to protracted daily plasmapheresis and steroids but readily and completely responsive to docetaxel plus cisplatin. Sustained and complete response was pathologically confirmed.
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7/29. Hematopoietic cell transplantation from related and unrelated donors after minimal conditioning as a curative treatment modality for severe paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare clonal disorder caused by a somatic mutation of the X-linked phosphatidylinositol glycan class A gene. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after high-dose conditioning is the only curative treatment; however, it is associated with high treatment-related mortality. Here, we report on allogeneic HCT for PNH after minimal conditioning. Seven adult patients with high-risk PNH underwent peripheral blood HCT from HLA-A-, -B-, -C-, -DRB1-, and -DQB1-matched related (n = 2) and unrelated (n = 5) donors. Conditioning included fludarabine 30 mg/m(2)/d on days -4 to -2 and 2 Gy of total body irradiation on day 0. After HCT, patients were given immunosuppressive therapy with oral cyclosporine starting on day -3 and mycophenolate mofetil starting on day 0. All 7 patients attained durable engraftment. After 28 days, a median of 77% (range, 53%-96%) T-cell donor chimerism was found in bone marrow and peripheral blood. T-cell chimerism increased to 91% (range, 76%-100%) on day 180 and to 100% in all surviving patients after 12 months. All 7 patients attained complete remissions of their disease. Four patients are alive 13 to 38 months after HCT. Three patients died of treatment-related mortality, 1 because of complications after acute pancreatitis and multiorgan failure, 1 because of infection related to chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and 1 because of bleeding after liver biopsy for late subacute/chronic GVHD. Allogeneic HCT from related and unrelated donors after minimal conditioning is a new and potentially curative option for patients with advanced PNH.
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8/29. Use of intravenous immunoglobulin and intravenous methylprednisolone in hyperhaemolysis syndrome in sickle cell disease.

    Hyperhaemolysis syndrome (HS), a syndrome in which there is destruction of both donor and recipient red cells after transfusion, is well recognised in patients with sickle cell disease and beta-thalassaemia. It has also been reported in a patient with myelofibrosis. In acute forms of HS, evidence of red cell antibody-mediated haemolysis is lacking, and it has been proposed that the transfused and the patient's own red blood cells were destroyed by hyperactive macrophages. Continuation of transfusion may be lethal as this can further exacerbate haemolysis. We report two cases of HS successfully treated with IVIg and IV methylprednisolone. The cessation of haemolysis following administration of IVIg and IV methylprednisolone supports the view that hyperactive macrophages contribute to the RBC destruction. IVIg and methylprednisolone appear to have a synergistic effect on suppressing the activity of macrophages.
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9/29. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria with onset in childhood: a case report.

    A twelve-year-old boy presented with recurrent episodes of anemia. Complete blood counts showed pancytopenia. Bone marrow was hypercellular with erythroid hyperplasia and depleted stores of iron. Positive Ham's test and sucrose lysis test revealed that he had paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. There was a delay of nearly two years in the diagnosis in this patient. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is rare in childhood. It must however be considered in a child who presents with unexplained anemia or bone marrow failure so that an early and accurate diagnosis is reached.
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10/29. Phenotypic expression of factor H mutations in patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    We investigated the phenotypic expression of factor H mutations in two patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Factor H in serum was assayed by rocket immunoelectrophoresis, immunoblotting, and double immunodiffusion and in tissue by immunohistochemistry. Functional activity was analyzed by hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes and binding to endothelial cells. A homozygous mutation in complement control protein (CCP) domain 10 of factor H was identified in an adult man who first developed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and later HUS. C3 levels were very low. The patient had undetectable factor H levels in serum and a weak factor H 150 kDa band. Double immunodiffusion showed partial antigenic identity with factor H in normal serum owing to the presence of factor H-like protein 1. Strong specific labeling for factor H was detected in glomerular endothelium, mesangium and in glomerular and tubular epithelium as well as in bone marrow cells. A heterozygous mutation in CCP 20 of factor H was found in a girl with HUS. C3 levels were moderately decreased at onset. Factor H levels were normal and a normal 150 kDa band was present. Double immunodiffusion showed antigenic identity with normal factor H. Factor H labeling was minimal in the renal cortex. Factor H dysfunction was demonstrated by increased sheep erythrocyte hemolysis and decreased binding to endothelial cells. In summary, two different factor H mutations associated with HUS were examined: in one, factor H accumulated in cells, and in the other, membrane binding was reduced.
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