Cases reported "Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome"

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21/68. Attempted treatment of factor H deficiency by liver transplantation.

    complement factor h (FH) deficiency is one of the causes of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Most patients with FH deficiency associated HUS progress to end-stage renal disease despite plasma therapy. Moreover, the disease invariably recurs in the graft kidney and causes graft failure. We confirmed FH deficiency in a 30-month-old boy with recurrent HUS of 2 years duration, and attempted an auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation (APOLT) to overcome the sustained intractable dependency on plasma therapy. APOLT restored the plasma FH level, without HUS recurrence, for 7 months. However, thereafter he suffered from serious infectious complications associated with immunosuppression and finally died 11 months after APOLT. In conclusion, although APOLT showed clinical and laboratory improvement for some period in this patient, the final fatal outcome suggests that liver transplantation should be cautiously applied to patients with HUS associated with FH deficiency.
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22/68. Two novel ADAMTS13 gene mutations in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic-uremic syndrome (TTP/HUS).

    BACKGROUND: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) are now considered to be variants of one single syndrome called thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic-uremic syndrome (TTP/HUS). Key features are thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, and subsequently impaired function of different organs, especially the kidneys and the central nervous system (CNS). One possible reason is the deficiency of von willebrand factor-cleaving protease (vWF-CP) resulting in persistence of uncleaved, ultralarge von willebrand factor multimers (ULvWFM). methods: We report a patient who was initially diagnosed with Evans syndrome (hemolytic anemia and autoimmune thrombocytopenia) as infant. At 10 years of age he developed HUS-like disease with gastrointestinal tract infection, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia,and acute renal failure. However, enteropathogenic escherichia coli-like or Shiga-like toxins were not detected. RESULTS: Further investigations revealed severe deficiency (<3%; normal >40%) of vWF-CP activity caused by compound heterozygosity of two novel ADAMTS13 gene mutations (1170 G>C [W390C] and 3735 G>A [W1245X]. vWF-CP autoantibodies were not detected. Periodic (every 2 weeks) treatment with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) maintained both platelet level and kidney function within normal range and prevented new episodes of TTP/HUS. CONCLUSION: Enteropathogenic E. coli- and Shiga-like toxin-negative patients who present with hemolytic or thrombocytopenic episodes and HUS like symptoms should be tested for vWF-CP deficiency and other noninfectious reasons for TTP/HUS since plasma substitution possibly provides an efficient therapeutic option for this subgroup of patients.
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23/68. Successful plasma therapy for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome caused by factor H deficiency owing to a novel mutation in the complement cofactor protein domain 15.

    Quantitative or functional deficiency of complement factor h results in uncontrolled complement activation. This leads to thrombotic microangiopathy and finally causes renal failure (atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome [aHUS]). By regular analysis of factor H in patients with aHUS, the authors found a complete factor H deficiency in an infant in whom aHUS developed at 8 months of age. Factor H was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and further analyzed by Western blot using a factor H-specific antibody. complement activation was determined by measuring total hemolytic activity of the classical (CH50) and alternative (APH50) pathways, C3 and C3d. The sequence of factor H gene was determined. Serial factor H measurements after fresh frozen plasma infusion allowed calculation of a factor H half-life. Factor H was absent in plasma (<1 mug/mL), and the complement system was highly activated (CH50, APH50, C3 decreased; C3d increased). Genetic analysis identified a novel homozygous factor H mutation (T2770A; Y899Stop) in CCP domain 15, most likely causing defective protein secretion. time course measurements of factor H after plasma infusion established a factor H half-life of about 6 days. By repetitive plasma infusions (20 mL/kg over about 2 to 3 hours) the authors were able to interrupt the vicious circle of thrombotic microangiopathy in a factor H-deficient patient with aHUS. Based on the measured factor H half-life of about 6 days, regular plasma infusions in 2-week intervals were given, which prevented further aHUS episodes and stopped the decline of kidney function.
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24/68. Posttransplantation cytomegalovirus-induced recurrence of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with a factor H mutation: successful treatment with intensive plasma exchanges and ganciclovir.

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) can recur after renal transplantation and often leads to graft loss. In some series of familial HUS, the risk of early graft loss due to recurrence of HUS approaches 100% despite any therapy. This led some authors to claim that kidney transplantation is contraindicated in those patients. The authors describe an 8-year-old girl with end-stage renal failure owing to familial atypical HUS with a factor H mutation who underwent successful transplantation using continuous prophylactic plasma exchange (PE). Twenty-four months after transplantation, plasma creatinine level is 1.2 mg/dL (106 micromol/L) despite 2 recurrences of HUS contemporaneous to 2 cytomegalovirus infections, which resolved with PE intensification and ganciclovir. This strongly suggests that cytomegalovirus infection may trigger posttransplant recurrent HUS. The feasibility of kidney transplantation in case of atypical HUS related to factor H mutation using continuous prophylactic PE intensified during relapses should be confirmed in prospective studies.
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25/68. Antibiotic resistant streptococcus pneumoniae and hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is the most common cause of acute renal failure in young children and most often follows an episode of gastroenteritis caused by an enterohemorrhagic strain of Escherichia coli (O157:H7). HUS induced by streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is rare. We report an 18-month-old patient who presented with HUS associated with SP resistant to penicillin and cephalosporins. CONCLUSION: Despite a protracted course including renal failure requiring 15 days of peritoneal dialysis, her kidney function completely recovered.
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26/68. Hemolytic uremic syndrome: a fatal outcome after kidney and liver transplantation performed to correct factor h gene mutation.

    Factor H-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a genetic form of thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by deficient factor H (HF-1) levels/activity and uncontrolled complement activation. The disorder mostly leads to end-stage renal disease and often recurs after kidney transplantation. We previously demonstrated that in a child with HF-1-associated HUS a simultaneous kidney and liver transplantation restored the defective HF-1 with no recurrence of the disease in the transplanted kidney. Here we describe a second childhood case of HF-1-associated HUS treated by combined kidney and liver transplant and complicated by a fatal, primary non-function of the liver graft. Graft hypoperfusion during surgery triggered ischemia/reperfusion changes and complement activation. Conceivably, as a result of defective complement regulatory potential, massive shedding of vascular heparan sulfates was documented in the transplanted liver. This might have impaired the physiological thromboresistance of vascular endothelium ending with widespread microvascular thrombosis and infarction. This case indicates that more fundamental research is needed before combined liver and kidney transplant is considered an option for children with HF-1-associated HUS.
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27/68. Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (Rituximab) for life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

    Rituximab is a chimaeric monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen. It has been successfully used in B-cell malignancy and its efficacy in the treatment of in autoimmune hemolytic anemia and other autoimmune diseases is being investigated. There are also few case reports of its success in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, but no reports of its use in hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). We report a 36-year-old patient who had lost the function of her native kidneys secondary to HUS. After more than 1 year in clinical remission, she received a living unrelated kidney transplant. This immediately precipitated a severe relapse of HUS. The process was abrogated but not completely inactivated, despite over 40 plasma exchange treatments. Consequently, she was given Rituximab in courses of two to three doses, each dose 375 mg/m(2), at weekly intervals with remarkable stabilization of her disease for approximately 6 months.
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28/68. complement factor h-associated atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in monozygotic twins: concordant presentation, discordant response to treatment.

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome not associated with diarrhea (diarrhea negative, atypical) is less common than the diarrhea-positive typical form, but frequently results in end-stage renal failure. Although there are anecdotal cases of successful treatment with fresh frozen plasma alone, the value of this treatment compared with plasma exchange (PE) is difficult to assess. We describe monozygotic female twins who presented at 5 years of age with factor H-related (c.3572 > T; Ser1191Leu) atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome within months of each other. In the first twin to present, 10 sessions of PE with fresh frozen plasma replacement (40 mL/kg) resulted in resolution of hemolysis and improvement in plasma creatinine level (1.9 to 1.5 mg/dL [166 to 137 micromol/L]). Subsequently, 17 infusions of fresh frozen plasma were administered during a 4-month period for recurrent thrombocytopenia. However, within 4 months, plasma creatinine level increased to 5.1 mg/dL (450 micromol/L), necessitating peritoneal dialysis. When the second twin presented with the same disease, an extended PE regimen was instituted. After 10 daily sessions, PE was continued once every 2 weeks. Two recurrences were treated successfully with daily PE for 7 days. After 44 months of follow-up, kidney function is normal (plasma creatinine, 0.6 mg/dL [53 micromol/L]; creatinine clearance, 119 mL/min/1.73 m2 [1.98 mL/s/1.73 m2]) on maintenance PE therapy. In conclusion, the response to treatment of these monozygotic twins suggests that long-term PE may have benefits over plasma infusion alone.
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29/68. Graft failure due to hemolytic uremic syndrome recurrence.

    The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a severe disease characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. We herein report our experience with a 43-year-old female patient who underwent a second cadaveric kidney transplantation in February 2005, for adult-onset HUS. The first renal transplantation, which was performed in 1996, required removal after 3 weeks for probable recurrence of HUS. The immunosuppressive regimen for the second transplant included basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. On postoperative day (POD) 7, she received steroid treatment for an acute rejection episode with improved renal function. On POD 19 due to worsening renal function, a graft biopsy showed HUS recurrence, thus we instituted hemodialysis and then plasmapheresis treatments. At two months after transplantation, the patient continued under plasmapheresis treatment due to clinical evidence of HUS. On POD 80, cytomegalovirus infection was diagnosed and intravenous gancyclovir treatment started for 3 weeks. After 110 days from transplant, a deterioration in renal function was evident: the graft was swollen and painful with Doppler ultrasound showing patency of both the renal artery and vein but, low blood flow. After 2 weeks of hemodialysis, the patient underwent transplantectomy. In adult-onset HUS the recurrence rate reduces graft survival, particularly among patients undergoing second transplantation.
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30/68. Favorable long-term outcome after liver-kidney transplant for recurrent hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with a factor H mutation.

    A male child initially presented with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) at the age of 4 months and progressed within weeks to end stage renal disease (ESRD). At the age of 2 years he received a live-related kidney transplant from his mother, which, despite initial good function, was lost to recurrent disease after 2 weeks. complement factor h analysis showed low serum levels and the presence of two mutations on different alleles (c.2918G > A, Cys973Tyr and c.3590T > C, Val1197Ala). His survival on dialysis was at risk because of access failure and recurrent bacteremic episodes. Therefore, at the age of 5 years he received a combined liver-kidney transplant with pre-operative plasma exchange. Initial function of both grafts was excellent and this has been maintained for over 2 years. This report suggests that despite setbacks in previous experience, combined liver-kidney transplantation offers the prospect of a favorable long-term outcome for patients with HUS associated with complement factor h mutations.
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