Cases reported "Hemoptysis"

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1/58. Delayed massive hemoptysis after expandable bronchial stent placement.

    patients with lung cancer often develop airway obstruction that necessitates palliative bronchoscopic interventions. Expandable metal stents are increasingly used for this indication. We report a case of fatal massive hemoptysis that occurred 1 week after uneventful bronchial stent placement. Previous treatment with external-beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and photodynamic therapy probably contributed to pulmonary artery-bronchial fistulization in this patient. This complication should be kept in mind when considering expandable airway stent insertion in heavily pretreated lung cancer patients.
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ranking = 1
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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2/58. Management of exsanguinating hemoptysis during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    BACKGROUND: Large-volume hemoptysis during cardiopulmonary bypass is an infrequent, but life-threatening event. Rapid airway clearance and control are the primary prerequisites for successful management. methods: The cases of 3 patients with different sources of exsanguinating hemoptysis during cardiopulmonary bypass managed initially with rigid bronchoscopy were reviewed. RESULTS: In all patients, airway control was rapidly established and weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass CPB was accomplished. Two patients survived the operative procedure. The other patient died in the operating room of unremitting bilateral pulmonary hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: Major hemoptysis during cardiopulmonary bypass is best dealt with initially by rapid airway control and cessation of bypass in an expeditious manner. An algorithm for suggested management is provided. The rigid bronchoscope is the optimal tool for initial management and it should always be available. Definitive treatment is determined by the cause and the persistence of hemorrhage once these maneuvers have been performed.
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ranking = 0.47520216361301
keywords = airway
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3/58. bronchiectasis with myeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody.

    A 56-year-old woman was hospitalized for recurrent hemoptysis. She had been suffering from bronchiectasis for 4 years. pseudomonas aeruginosa was persistently detected in her sputum. serum was positive for Myeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (BPI-ANCA). She underwent lung resection. Histopathologically, the resected lung showed bronchiectasis with pulmonary fibrosis but did not show vasculitis. Her serum became negative for the ANCAs after the operation. To date, she has no recurrence of hemoptysis. We discuss this case of bronchiectasis with MPO-ANCA and BPI-ANCA and suggest a possible role for ANCAs in chronic airway infection.
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ranking = 0.15840072120434
keywords = airway
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4/58. Laser resection of a pedunculated tracheal adenoma.

    We report a case of tracheal adenoma presenting as hemoptysis and reversible airflow obstruction in an ex-smoker. A questionable defect in the tracheal air shadow on a posteroanterior chest radiograph was shown on CT to be a pedunculated, mid-tracheal tumor. Two-stage bronchoscopic laser resection resulted in an apparently normal tracheal mucosa. Results of postresection spirometry were normal.
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ranking = 0.041550794329565
keywords = obstruction
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5/58. Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis following bronchial artery embolization for hemoptysis.

    Bronchial artery embolization is an effective treatment for patients with hemoptysis. Serious complications are rare, but may occur if the arterial supply to other structures is compromised. We present a case of unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis following bronchial artery embolization in a patient with cystic fibrosis. We believe that the diaphragmatic paralysis was due to the inadvertent obstruction of the left pericardiacophrenic artery during the embolization procedure, with compromise of the phrenic nerve blood supply. This resulted in a significant loss of lung function in our patient, who did not recover despite the subsequent return of diaphragmatic function.
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ranking = 0.041550794329565
keywords = obstruction
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6/58. Endobronchial metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: report of a case.

    A case of endobronchial metastasis from renal cell carcinoma developing 5 years after a right nephrectomy in a 63-year-old man is reported. Bronchoscopic examination performed after the patient presented with hemoptysis showed a polypoid tumor obstructing the entrance to the left upper bronchus. A snare was introduced through a bronchofiberscope to remove the endobronchial tumor, following which his atelectasis improved remarkably and his hemoptysis resolved. No side effects were observed. Electrosurgical snaring proved useful as palliative treatment to relieve bronchial obstruction due to an endobronchial metastasis in this patient.
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ranking = 0.041550794329565
keywords = obstruction
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7/58. Lethal hemoptysis caused by biopsy injury of an abnormal bronchial artery.

    A 62-year-old man with a long history of lung disease developed atelectasis of the right middle lung lobe, caused by a protrusion in the wall of the middle lobe bronchus. A biopsy was performed in the suspicious region. This was immediately followed by massive arterial bleeding into the airways and complicated by cardiac arrest soon after. The bleeding could not be controlled by nonsurgical treatment; the patient died 24 h after the complication because of pulmonary insufficiency. autopsy revealed the bleeding to have been caused by a biopsy injury of a bronchial artery that had run superficially in the bronchial mucosa and had produced the intrabronchial protrusion. Several other abnormal intrabronchial arteries were found peripherally in this lung.
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ranking = 0.15840072120434
keywords = airway
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8/58. The use of endoscopic argon plasma coagulation in airway complications after solid organ transplantation.

    The objective of the study was to describe a safe and effective treatment option for endobronchial complications after solid organ transplantation. A retrospective analysis was performed in a tertiary-care university hospital. The use of bronchoscopic argon plasma coagulation (APC) for the treatment of endobronchial lesions was studied in five solid organ transplant recipients. Four patients presented with variable degrees of endobronchial obstruction, and one patient presented with massive hemoptysis. Two of the patients with endobronchial obstruction were double lung transplant recipients who developed anastomotic strictures. The strictures were opened with endobronchial stents but became obstructed again by inflammatory granulation tissue overgrowth through the stent mesh. APC was used to maintain airway patency. One kidney transplant recipient developed pulmonary zygomycosis with secondary obstruction of the left main bronchus because of granulation tissue growth through endobronchial stents. Airway patency was reestablished with several treatments with APC. Another kidney transplant recipient developed subglottic and tracheal papillomatosis that was effectively removed with APC. A heart transplant recipient was referred with recurrent massive hemoptysis refractory to bronchial artery embolization. The bleeding was caused by hemorrhagic polypoid lesions, which were completely ablated by APC. Bronchoscopic use of the argon plasma coagulator is a safe and simple technique that can be used effectively to treat endobronchial pathology in solid organ transplant patients.
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ranking = 0.91665598901038
keywords = airway, obstruction
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9/58. Pulmonary venous obstruction requiring lobectomy for hemoptysis after a Glenn operation.

    Right atrial isomerism is well known to be associated with anomalous pulmonary venous drainage and a potentially dangerous sequel to pulmonary venous obstruction, and is associated with high mortality. We report a 16-month-old girl with pulmonary venous obstruction requiring lobectomy for hemoptysis after a Glenn operation. Two years after surgery, she is doing well with 80% oxygen saturation and no further episodes of hemoptysis.
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ranking = 0.24930476597739
keywords = obstruction
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10/58. Varicosities of the valleculae: an unusual cause of hemoptysis?

    hemoptysis is a common respiratory symptom causing a great deal of anxiety. The cause is often apparent following a clinical history, upper-airway examination, bronchoscopy, and CT scanning of the thorax. We present a case of massive hemoptysis, the etiology of which was not readily apparent despite this conventional approach. Vallecular hemorrhage has been previously reported but is usually minor unless associated with surgical trauma, and can be readily missed if not aware of the possibility. We speculate about the etiology and mechanism for recurrent hemorrhage.
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ranking = 0.15840072120434
keywords = airway
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