Cases reported "Hemoptysis"

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11/58. Emergent pneumonectomy for hemoptysis in a patient with previous thoracoplasty.

    hemoptysis is a life-threatening episode of respiratory disease. By means of every possible treatment, hemostasis should be obtained to secure the airway as well as to prevent blood loss. We describe an emergency pneumonectomy for massive hemoptysis from destroyed lung in a patient with previous thoracoplasty. After the prolonged ventilation support postoperatively, the patient with compromised lung function recovered well.
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keywords = airway
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12/58. Laryngeal hirudiniasis: an unusual cause of airway obstruction and hemoptysis.

    Cases of childhood hemoptysis are rare and usually result from foreign body aspiration or congenital heart or lung diseases. However, human hirudiniasis due to the leech still exists, and could involve the upper airways after drinking infested water from quiet streams and pools. We report the case of a 6-year-old child who presented suffocating at the emergency room after having been misdiagnosed and treated for asthma over a 1-month period. His mother reported he had had recurrent hemoptysis, as well. The child inadvertently drank leech-infested water in a rural area of northern syria. Surgical removal of the leech resulted in prompt resolution of the symptoms. Although laryngeal hirudiniasis is rare in the developed world, it remains a possible cause of childhood airway obstruction, hemoptysis, and anemia which needs to be considered in patients with a suggestive history.
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ranking = 27.565512846056
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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13/58. hemoptysis in musical wind instrument players.

    Three cases of haemoptysis amongst musical wind instrument players encountered in last five years are reported. None had an identifiable pathology in lungs. Detailed investigations including computed tomography of chest and fibreoptic bronchoscopy were normal. Turbulent airflow, frictional trauma to airways due to repeated blowing is proposed as the underlying aetio-pathogenesis.
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14/58. The lungs in lymphangiomyomatosis and in tuberous sclerosis.

    Two cases of pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis (PL) are described and 33 other cases from the literature are reviewed. These are compared with one case of tuberous sclerosis with pulmonary involvement (PTS) and 32 other cases from the literature. There are no differences in lung function between these two conditions, both of which show airways obstruction associated with diffuse radiological lung changes. There are, however, both clinical and radiological differences and also differences in the distribution of the lesions and the histological location of the excessive smooth muscle; these indicate that PL and PTS are probably different entities and not polar forms of one condition. Finally, the strictly female incidence of PL suggests a sex-linked disorder, and it is postulated that this may be related to congenital pulmonary lymphangiectases.
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ranking = 1.2623144264347
keywords = airway, obstruction
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15/58. Haemoptysis as a late complication of a Mustard operation treated by balloon dilation of a superior caval venous obstruction.

    Haemoptysis was the presenting symptom in a 27-year-old male. He had undergone a Mustard operation for connection of complete transposition at the age of 2 years. For 6 months prior to admission, he had complained of dyspnoea without chestpain, and swelling of the fingers during hard physical work. Chest radiography and computer tomographic scans showed normal features of the pulmonary parenchyma, and no sign of cardiomegaly or vascular stasis. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy demonstrated a blood clot in the upper right bronchus, without any associated abnormalities of the bronchial tree. Doppler echocardiography showed obstruction of the superior caval vein, which was verified by cardiac catheterization. Balloon dilation at the site of obstruction increased the diameter of the vein from 0.5 to 1.7 cm, and the mean pressure in the superior caval vein was reduced significantly from 18 to 10 mmHg. The haemoptysis did not recur, and no complaints of dyspnoea or swelling of fingers during physical activity was reported 2 years later. Transthoracic echocardiography undertaken at this time revealed no obstruction of the superior caval vein. We conclude that hemoptysis is a rare complication of increased venous pressure in the upper body of patients with superior caval venous obstruction, which can be treated by balloon dilation or stenting.
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ranking = 2.098515411478
keywords = obstruction
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16/58. Anesthetic management of a parturient undergoing cesarean section with a tracheal tumor and hemoptysis.

    Anesthetic management of a parturient with respiratory failure associated with hemoptysis, dyspnea, and orthopnea is difficult. An anesthesiologist should realize that the patient's major problem is not solved during the surgery. This circumstance is similar to a patient with associated cardiac disease scheduled for non-cardiac surgery. General anesthesia with endotracheal intubation can provide safe oxygenation for both the parturient and the fetus, but with possible unexpected massive hemoptysis and tumor seeding. Prolonged intubation may delay the patient's pulmonary treatment course. Laryngeal mask anesthesia can provide an airway, but must not be secured due to the risk of aspiration. The need of high doses of inhalation drugs may hinder uterine contractions. The addition of a muscle relaxant will change the patient's respiratory patterns and physiology. Regional anesthesia alone might not be tolerated. A decrease in cough strength, as well as dyspnea, orthopnea, and hyperventilation may be harmful to both the parturient and the fetus. However, we successfully managed this case using epidural anesthesia combined with assisted mask ventilation instead of spontaneous breathing usually provided by a simple mask in almost all American Society of anesthesiology (ASA) class I-II parturients during cesarean section. The anesthetic level was maintained at T8 with 18 ml of 2% Xylocaine mixed with 2 ml of 7% sodium bicarbonate with 1:200,000 epinephrine epidurally and with the patient in a supine position with the head up at 30 degrees to prevent cephalic spreading and to ensure better pulmonary ventilation.
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17/58. Massive hemoptysis caused by endobronchial schwannoma in a patient with neurofibromatosis 2.

    Neurogenic tumor of the lung is very uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, endobronchial schwannoma complicated by massive hemoptysis in a patient with neurofibromatosis 2 has not been reported previously. We report a case of endobronchial schwannoma complicated by massive hemoptysis in an 18-year-old man with neurofibromatosis 2. The diagnosis of neurofibromatosis 2 was established by demonstration of bilateral vestibular schwannomas on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and pathologic examination of the resected brain tumors. Massive hemoptysis developed after surgical removal of the brain tumors in this patient. bronchoscopy was done immediately after the first episode of hemoptysis and a tumor protruding from the orifice of the right lower lobe bronchus was found. Despite 2 additional bronchoscopies to stop bleeding and ameliorate airway obstruction in the consecutive 2 days, hemoptysis recurred rapidly and caused profound oxygen desaturation. The patient was subjected to right lower lobectomy and endobronchial schwannoma was evidenced pathologically.
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ranking = 5.3131025692112
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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18/58. Successful endoscopic Nd-YAG laser treatment of endobronchial endometriosis.

    Catamenial hemoptysis is a rare condition that is associated with the presence of intrapulmonary or endobronchial endometrial tissue. diagnosis of and therapy for this condition are still a matter of debate. We describe a case of endobronchial endometriosis with catamenial hemoptysis. An endobronchial lesion was diagnosed by spiral CT scan, taken at the onset of the menses, and confirmed with flexible bronchoscopy. The patient was successfully treated with endoscopic Nd-YAG laser therapy with a 1-day in-hospital procedure. We suggest that endoscopic laser treatment should be the first line of therapy for central airway endometriosis, provided that the source of bleeding has been conclusively located and all of the lesions can be reached with the bronchoscope.
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19/58. hemoptysis: a rare cause can be related to a bronchial varix due to pulmonary venous obstruction.

    Bronchial varices, which have rarely been described in the radiology literature, can be the result of pulmonary venous obstruction and may present with hemoptysis. This case is an illustration of this rare condition, which correlates CT findings with bronchoscopic findings. We also describe the findings on phase-contrast MR that demonstrated reversed diastolic flow in the branch pulmonary artery supplying the affected lung.
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ranking = 1.3115721321737
keywords = obstruction
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20/58. Acute respiratory failure with gross hemoptysis in a patient with lymphangioleiomyomatosis as part of tuberous sclerosis complex.

    A 29-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a 7-day history of elevated temperature to 39.5 degrees C associated with headache and nausea. She had been diagnosed with tuberous sclerosis complex 10 years earlier. Her unconsciousness progressed, and she was diagnosed as having aseptic meningoencephalitis. The next day, she had a generalized seizure with severe hemoptysis, and she suddenly fell into severe respiratory failure (PaO2/FiO2 = 76.9). Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed the findings of lymphangioleiomyomatosis. It was suggested that neurogenic pulmonary edema accompanied with venous flow obstruction by lymphangioleiomyomatosis lesions resulted in diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage with resultant gross hemoptysis accelerating to severe hypoxemia.
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ranking = 0.26231442643474
keywords = obstruction
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