Cases reported "Hemoptysis"

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1/15. Occult aspiration of a chicken wishbone as a cause of hemoptysis.

    Aspiration of foreign bodies is more common in children than adults. The clinical and radiological findings between these two age groups are different. It is a clinical diagnosis often overlooked in adults. We hereby present an elderly male patient who was referred to us due to a one year history of hemoptysis. He was heavy smoker, so the initial working diagnosis was malignancy. Upon bronchoscopic evaluation, a foreign object was found which is very uncommon in adults. The unusual location of the aspirated material is another interesting feature of our case. Clinicians should be aware that aspiration of foreign objects may occur also in adults.
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2/15. Fatal haemoptysis induced by invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with acute leukaemia during bone marrow and clinical remission: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    We describe two patients with acute leukaemia who died of massive haemoptysis caused by invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The fatal event occurred during the period of bone marrow remission which followed chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. This is a rare complication. We were able to find additional 17 similar cases in the English literature, which we review. Clinically, the picture consisted of unremitting fever with profound and prolonged neutropenia, cough and dyspnoea. Both our patients were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, fluconazole and amphotericin b. An upper lobe infiltrate in one case, and a progressive pleural effusion in the other, were late findings on chest radiographs during the period of bone marrow recovery. Both patients succumbed to sudden massive haemoptysis during the period of bone marrow and clinical improvement. In conclusion, patients with acute non-lymphoid leukaemia are at significant risk for IPA-induced fatal haemoptysis during bone marrow and clinical remission. A high index of suspicion should be sustained throughout the entire clinical course. In view of the potential fatal outcome, aggressive diagnostic and treatment efforts are mandatory.
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keywords = bone
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3/15. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis in an adult. Favourable response to azathioprine.

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare disorder characterised by intermittent, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH). Although an inflammatory pulmonary capillaritis can be evidenced in most patients with DAH, IPH is a distinct entity in which pulmonary inflammatory alterations are lacking. Most cases occur in children, although the disease has been exceptionally reported in adults too. Here, we, describe a case of IPH in a 30-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital because of recurrent episodes of hemoptysis since the age of 21. IPH was diagnosed on the basis of: 1) an open lung biopsy showing focal alveolar edema and hemorrhage without parenchymal inflammatory alterations, 2) a bronchoalveolar lavage showing hemosiderin-laden macrophages, and 3) exclusion of infectious or immunologic causes of hemoptysis. prednisone administration could control the disease, but every attempt to lower the dose to less than 25 mg per day was followed by recurrence of hemoptysis. Then, azathioprine was started, and after three months prednisone was gradually tapered to the dose of 10 mg per day, without any relapse of the disease. These findings indicate that azathioprine, in combination with prednisone, may be an effective therapy for IPH and suggest that an immunologic mechanism could be involved in the pulmonary capillary damage underlying alveolar bleeding.
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ranking = 428.81174956629
keywords = macrophage
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4/15. Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis associated with primary pulmonary hypertension: report of 2 new cases and review of 35 cases from the literature.

    Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare cause of primary pulmonary hypertension characterized by thin-walled microvessels infiltrating the peribronchial and perivascular interstitium, the lung parenchyma, and the pleura. These proliferating microvessels are prone to bleeding, resulting in accumulation of hemosiderin-laden macrophages in alveolar spaces. Here we report 2 cases of PCH with pulmonary hypertension, 1 of them associated with mechanical intravascular hemolysis, a feature previously reported in other hemangiomatous diseases, but not in PCH. Case 2 was diagnosed by pulmonary biopsy; to our knowledge the patient is the second adult to be treated with interferon alpha-2a. review of the literature identified 35 patients with PCH and pulmonary hypertension. The prognosis is poor and median survival was 3 years from the first clinical manifestation. dyspnea and right heart failure are the most common findings of the disease. hemoptysis, pleural effusion, acropachy, and signs of pulmonary capillary hypertension are less common. Chest X-ray or computed tomography scan usually shows evidence of interstitial infiltrates, pulmonary nodules, or pleural effusion. Hemodynamic features include normal wedge pressures. Radiologic and hemodynamic findings are undifferentiated from those of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease but differ from other causes of primary pulmonary hypertension. epoprostenol therapy, considered the treatment of choice in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension, may produce pulmonary edema and is contraindicated in patients with PCH. Regression of lesions was reported in 1 patient treated with interferon therapy and 2 other patients stabilized, including our second patient. PCH was treated successfully by lung transplantation in 5 cases. Early recognition of PCH in patients with suspected primary pulmonary hypertension is possible based on clinical and radiologic characteristics. diagnosis by pulmonary biopsy is essential for allowing appropriate treatment.
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ranking = 428.81174956629
keywords = macrophage
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5/15. Fatal thrombocytopenia and thrombocytopathia: an unusual onset of non-small cell lung cancer.

    BACKGROUND: Although bone marrow is a common site of micrometastases for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), thrombocytopathia and hemorrhagic diathesis are rare causes of death. CASE REPORT: A 57-year-old patient was admitted to the emergency room because of massive nosebleeding and hemoptysis. Routine blood analysis showed thrombocytopenia and prolonged bleeding time; results of functional platelet tests suggested concomitant thrombocytopathia. Routine chest X-ray revealed an 18 mm large spot in the right superior lobe. During the first hour of recovery the patient had another episode of nosebleeding. A bone marrow biopsy showed a wide infiltration with neoplastic cells. histology was compatible with NSCLC. The clinical conditions and hematological parameters progressively deteriorated, and on the third day the patient died because of hypovolemic shock. CONCLUSION: This is a very rare clinical presentation of NSCLC characterized by massive bleeding due to thrombocytopenia and thrombocytopathia secondary to wide bone marrow infiltration.
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6/15. Fatal haemoptysis associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis treated with high-dose amphotericin b and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF).

    Opportunistic pulmonary infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chemotherapeutically treated neoplasias. With increasingly aggressive cytotoxic regimens causing prolonged neutropenia, the risk of systemic mycoses and in particular of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis has increased. We review the case of a 10-year-old child suffering from relapsed lymphoblastic leukaemia and from high-dose amphotericin b-treated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis acquired during long-standing neutropenia in the initial phase of remission induction chemotherapy. The patient died in remission after GM-CSF-induced bone marrow recovery and clinical and radiological improvement with stable plasmatic coagulation and normal thrombocyte count. Peracute massive pulmonary bleeding caused by the simultaneous arrosion of a greater pulmonary artery and a lobar bronchus by a liquefactive fungal focus was responsible. In patients with chemotherapeutically induced neutropenia and invasive aspergillosis, bone marrow recovery may lead to the liquefaction of pulmonary foci, and, in view of the well-known vasotropic nature of the infection, to a potentially lethal arrosion bleeding. With the emerging use of colony-stimulating factors for shortening and overcoming neutropenia, this so far rare complication may become of increasing importance.
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ranking = 1715.7469982652
keywords = macrophage, bone
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7/15. sirolimus-associated diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.

    sirolimus is an immunosuppressive medication used in transplant recipients. To our knowledge, we describe the third reported case of alveolar hemorrhage in association with sirolimus. fever, dyspnea, hemoptysis, and lung infiltrates resolved rapidly with cessation of sirolimus therapy both initially and after reinstitution of the drug. Unlike previous reports, our patient had no evidence of lymphocytic alveolitis but rather marked macrophage hemosiderosis, suggesting that sirolimus pulmonary toxicity may manifest through 2 separate mechanisms. Our case highlights an uncommon but potentially lethal manifestation of sirolimus pulmonary toxicity.
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keywords = macrophage
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8/15. Nitric oxide production and immunoglobulin deposition in leptospiral hemorrhagic respiratory failure.

    Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage leading to death is a syndrome which may develop in leptospirosis, but its pathophysiology is not well documented. We report an autopsy case of leptospirosis. A healthy 41-year-old man presented with low back myalgia, dry cough and fever for 4 days and a normal chest X-ray on admission. Acute respiratory failure developed hours later. Profuse bloody fluid appeared in the endotracheal tube immediately after intubation. Chest X-ray showed whiteness across all lung fields. He died of persistent shock 16 h after the onset of acute respiratory failure. autopsy revealed diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage with hyaline-membrane formation, myocarditis, interstitial nephritis and hepatitis. silver stain of lung and kidney tissue demonstrated leptospires. Immunohistochemical staining showed inducible nitric oxide synthase in alveolar macrophages. Immunofluorescein staining showed immunoglobulin in alveolar septum and alveolar space. This case suggests that hemorrhagic diffuse alveolar damage with persistent shock is related to over-production of nitric oxide and immunoglobulin deposition in fatal leptospirosis.
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ranking = 428.81174956629
keywords = macrophage
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9/15. Endobronchial metastasis of thyroid follicular carcinoma.

    Well-differentiated forms of thyroid cancer, including follicular carcinoma, usually have good prognoses. But they are also known to metastasize to the bones, lungs and central nervous system. Endobronchial metastasis is exceptionally rare. In this paper, we report on a patient with endobronchial metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma. A 77-year-old male patient presented to our hospital with hemoptysis and a growing mass over the right clavicula. Computerized tomography (CT) of the chest revealed multiple lung metastases. Flexible bronchoscopy revealed a fragile polypoid mass of 1.5 cm, 6 cm distal to the vocal cords. biopsy from the supraclavicular mass was consistent with follicular thyroid carcinoma. Taking into account the advanced nature of the disease as well as the general condition and age of the patient, aggressive treatment modalities were not considered in the management. Palliation for hemoptysis was attained by external radiotherapy. After radiotherapy, hemoptysis did not recur, and the patient was discharged. Although endobronchial metastasis of thyroid follicular carcinoma is very rare, the presence of endobronchial metastasis may be life threatening due to massive hemoptysis, and such a lesion must be suspected in any cancer patients presenting with hemoptysis.
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10/15. Vascular injury following foreign body perforation of the esophagus. review of the literature and report of a case.

    esophageal perforation resulting from foreign body ingestion is a rare occurrence. Most of the complications associated with this event, such as retroesophageal abscess, mediastinitis, pericarditis, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum, are widely recognized. However, little attention has been directed to the possibility of vascular injury caused by the perforating object. Isolated case reports have described significant morbidity and mortality subsequent to major vascular trauma resulting from an esophageal foreign body, usually emphasizing the presence of a "signal" hemorrhage from the gastrointestinal tract as a key to diagnosis. This report describes a case of esophageal perforation caused by an ingested fishbone that resulted in significant aerodigestive hemorrhage, possibly as the result of an unusual isolated vascular injury. The literature on vascular trauma following foreign body perforation of the esophagus is reviewed, and suggestions for the diagnosis and treatment of these dreaded complications are made.
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