Cases reported "Hemorrhage"

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11/197. Intraoesophageal rupture of a thoracic aortic aneurysm.

    The intraoesophageal rupture of a large thoracic aortic aneurysm is reported in a 49 year old man. He had been hypertensive for some years while the aneurysm increased in size. Although a graft was successfully inserted to repair the leak, infection from the oesophagus with candida albicans, subsequently led to secondary haemorrhage and death 17 days later. A plea is made for the earlier referral of patients with aneurysm prior to rupture, as the operative mortality rises markedly after rupture has occurred and in this case the situation was virtually irreparable.
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12/197. Acute hepatitis and bleeding possibly induced by zidovudine and ritonavir in an infant with HIV infection.

    Acute hepatitis led to abnormal coagulopathy, bleeding, and death in a nonhemophiliac infant infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, possibly due to zidovudine or ritonavir or both. Acute hepatitis during ritonavir treatment and episodes of spontaneous bleeding have been reported in patients with hemophilia. zidovudine is associated with elevated liver enzymes, elevated bilirubin, and hepatomegaly leading to abnormal coagulopathy, bleeding, and death in adults. A temporal relationship between the start of combination antiretroviral therapy and onset of hepatosplenomegaly and rise in liver enzymes suggests that zidovudine or ritonavir, or both, are the likely cause of this adverse event. ritonavir is believed to cause direct hepatotoxicity, probably by inducing acute mitochondrial toxicity, and may hasten reverse transcriptase inhibitor-induced liver toxicity. liver function of patients receiving a combination of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitors should be closely monitored.
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keywords = death
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13/197. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients treated with ATRA--a manifestation of the basic disease or the treatment.

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is considered the recommended induction treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia. In the pre-ATRA era pulmonary bleeding was a common cause of death in these patients, mostly due to disseminated intravascular coagulation which was further exacerbated by the administration of chemotherapy. Although ATRA syndrome, the most serious adverse effect of ATRA treatment, involves the lungs, pulmonary hemorrhage has only rarely been reported as a manifestation of ATRA syndrome. Here we describe 2 patients who developed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage during treatment with ATRA. The possible mechanisms of pulmonary bleeding in these cases are discussed.
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keywords = death
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14/197. Olanzapine-induced acute pancreatitis.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the first published case of olanzapine-induced acute pancreatitis. CASE SUMMARY: A 72-year-old white woman was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis and unintentional verapamil overdose. The patient did not consume alcohol and had undergone a cholecystectomy in the past; other medical causes of pancreatitis had been ruled out. She was taking several medications chronically, but olanzapine was started six days prior to the onset of acute abdominal symptoms. According to the Naranjo probability scale, olanzapine was considered the probable cause of acute pancreatitis in this patient. Following a 12-day stay in the ICU, the patient was transferred to the ward where she died a few days later of unrelenting peritonitis secondary to acute pancreatitis. DISCUSSION: A literature search (1966-July 2000) and contact with the manufacturer failed to detect any published reports of acute pancreatitis associated with olanzapine. The contribution of concomitant medications taken prior to ICU admission in initiating or worsening the pancreatitis was deemed unlikely. More common causes of acute pancreatitis, such as ethanol consumption and gallstones, were also ruled out in this patient. Therefore, olanzapine was rated as a probable cause for acute pancreatitis in our patient. The mechanism of this adverse reaction is unknown. CONCLUSIONS: This is believed to be the first published report suspecting olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic agent, to have caused acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis in a patient, leading to admission to the ICU and, eventually, death secondary to unrelenting peritonitis.
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15/197. Sudden death from pelvic hemorrhage after bilateral central fracture dislocations of the hip due to an epileptic seizure.

    Fracture and dislocation of major joints may be caused by the forceful tonic muscular contractions of seizure activity. A 77-year-old man who was found dead in bed with no sign of external trauma had bilateral central fracture dislocations of the femoral head through the acetabular floor with fatal pelvic hemorrhage and extensive pulmonary fat and bone marrow embolism. He had epilepsy, but the last seizure was 6 years earlier, and he had long discontinued medication. The fractures were attributed to a new unwitnessed seizure. This is the twentieth case of central fracture dislocation of the hip since 1970, when better anesthesia eliminated convulsive therapy-induced fractures. The authors review these 20 cases. seizures followed inflammation, infarction or neoplasia of the brain, eclampsia, metabolic or iatrogenic causes, or epilepsy (6 cases, 2 of which had no prior seizures for 5 years). There were 11 men (mean age, 64 years) and 9 women (mean age, 47 years). Fractures were unilateral in 13 and bilateral in 7. Additional fractures (in vertebrae, shoulders, or femur) were present in eight. Only eight had prior bone disease. Local symptoms led to diagnosis in most, but two were identified incidentally on imaging. The current patient was the only one to die suddenly, but six other patients presented with shock and three died (one of whom had injuries that led to a suspicion of manslaughter). Central fracture-dislocation of the hip is a rare and little known consequence of seizures, with strong potential for misdiagnosis and lethal complications.
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keywords = death
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16/197. A fatal case of infantile scurvy.

    We report a case of infant death due to scurvy, which is very rare in japan. We initially had little knowledge of the disease and suspected that the bleeding in the body was caused by domestic violence. The case did not fall under the category of the battered child syndrome but the death was caused by ignorance with respect to child care. In addition the parents usually locked the child alone in a room during the day and this is probably a case of neglect.
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17/197. Severe bleeding complications in HIV-positive haemophiliac patients treated with protease inhibitors.

    The availability of more potent drugs for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has led to the development of aggressive drug regimens, including the widespread use of hiv protease inhibitors. Several reports have indicated increased bleeding complications in haemophiliac patients after starting treatment with protease inhibitors. We present two cases of exceptionally severe hemorrhagic events in HIV-positive patients with haemophilia A after starting hiv protease inhibitors, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. One patient developed a progressive paranephric pseudotumor becoming symptomatic only one month after the start of ritonavir. The second patient presented with an intracranial bleed, resulting in his death within forty-eight hours, nineteen weeks after he was started on nelfinavir. Both patients showed an excellent antiviral response to the HIV-protease inhibitors with significant decrease in their HIV-rna titers. Potentially serious hemorrhagic complications that require emergent intervention may occur in HIV-positive haemophiliac patients undergoing therapy with protease inhibitors. Clinicians should be alert to these complications.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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18/197. Massive acute thymic haemorrhage and cerebral haemorrhage in an intrauterine fetal death.

    Massive acute thymic haemorrhage in the neonate occurs extremely rarely and is associated with haemorrhagic disease of the newborn. A 30 year old woman with an unremarkable previous obstetric history presenting at 37 weeks and 4 days gestation with the complaint of loss of fetal movement was found to have a male fetus with findings at necropsy of massive acute thymic haemorrhage, acute intracranial haemorrhage, and hydrops fetalis. This is the first report of massive acute thymic haemorrhage in utero. Massive thymic haemorrhage should be added to the reported causes of lethal non-immunological hydrops.
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ranking = 4
keywords = death
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19/197. hemorrhage in the oculomotor nerve as a complication of leukemia.

    Oculomotor paralysis of a patient with leukemia was revealed at autopsy to be caused by a hemorrhage in the oculomotor nerve. In a 63-year-old woman with pre-B-cell acute lymphatic leukemia, leukemic invasions occurred in her spinal cord and right oculomotor nerve during a hematological remission state. The oculomotor palsy was aggravated to complete paralysis during a leukemic relapse, which lasted until her death. An autopsy revealed a hemorrhage along with leukemic cells in the right oculomotor nerve at the segment in the upper orbital fissure. Although hemorrhagic oculomotor paralysis is a very rare complication, reports of its occurrence will likely increase with improved survival times of leukemia patients due to advances in chemotherapy.
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20/197. Lethal complications after tonsillectomy.

    Lethal complications after tonsillectomy. Two cases of serious complications after paediatric tonsillectomy, that were referred to our department, resulted in death, one due to massive haemorrhage and one due to hyponatremia. Thanks to early recognition and adequate treatment, two other cases could be successfully treated. The literature on serious complications after tonsillectomy was critically reviewed. Guidelines on peri- and postoperative fluid management are given. Vascular anatomy of the tonsillar region is reviewed. Location and treatment policy on severe haemorrhages are discussed.
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ranking = 1
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