Cases reported "Hemorrhage"

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1/163. Importance of basophilia in haematopoietic disorders.

    To the significance of basophilia in haematopoietic disorders, six draw attention to cases have been analyzed. Associated diseases included acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML-M2, M3, M4, and M6), refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) and RAEB in transformation (RAEB-T). Two AML cases (M2, M6) were preceeded by myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). All patients showed greater than 3% basophilia in peripheral blood and bone marrow. basophils were identified successfully by metachromatic staining with toluidine blue in all cases. Three patients (M3, M4, RAEB) presented with lymphadenopathy, suggesting an association with extramedullary involvement. Neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP) activity was significantly reduced in four patients with AML (M2, M3, M4) and RAEB-T. The clinical course was generally unfavourable characterized by short remission duration or disease progression except for the patient with RAEB. Haemorrhage was the main cause of death rather than infection. cytogenetic analysis revealed unique abnormalities involving chromosomes 3q21, 5q31, and 17q11 where the genes for some haematopoietic growth factors or their receptors are located, in addition to t(6;9) and t(15;17).
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keywords = bone
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2/163. High-dose corticosteroid therapy for diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in allogeneic bone marrow stem cell transplant recipients.

    In a series of 74 patients with hematological malignancies undergoing allogeneic bone marrow or peri- pheral blood stem cell transplants from an HLA-identical sibling donor, four developed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) between days 0 and 23 post transplant. diagnosis was made by the radiographic finding of diffuse bilateral lung opacities, and bloody lavage fluid on bronchoscopy. Two patients required mechanical ventilatory support. They were treated with methylprednisolone 0.25-1.5 g/day for at least 4 days with slow tapering thereafter. All patients showed an immediate response and two became long-term survivors with normal respiratory function. Two had a relapse of DAH, developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and died with multi-organ failure. risk factors for DAH were one or more courses of intensive chemotherapy pretransplant vs no treatment or low-dose chemotherapy (4/4 DAH vs 23/70 no DAH; P = 0.015), and second transplants (2/2 DAH vs 1/70 with no DAH; P = 0.006). These results indicate that DAH is life-threatening but is potentially reversible by prompt treatment with high doses of steroids.
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keywords = bone
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3/163. Fludarabine phosphate as an active and well tolerated salvage therapy in an elderly heavily pretreated Hodgkin's disease patient: a case report.

    Up to two thirds of all patients affected by advanced Hodgkin's disease will be cured by chemotherapy alone or by combined chemoradiation modalities. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue may be potentially curative for patients progressing under frontline chemotherapy or developing early relapse of disease. In spite of this, an unacceptably high percentage of these high-risk patients will relapse after salvage treatments and die of their disease. Fludarabine phosphate is an adenosine nucleoside analog highly active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. There are only few data in the literature concerning its use in the management of Hodgkin's disease. We report the case of an elderly, heavily pretreated Hodgkin's disease patient in progression under third-line chemotherapy who experienced good palliation of her B symptoms and a major clinical response of her refractory bone lesions with the administration of fludarabine as monotherapy. The treatment was well tolerated, without grade 4 hematological toxicity or opportunistic infections. The duration of clinical remission and systemic symptom palliation was 9 and 11 months, respectively. Further evaluation of fludarabine phosphate as salvage therapy in relapsed/refractory elderly Hodgkin's disease patients is needed.
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4/163. Alveolar haemorrhage in a case of high altitude pulmonary oedema.

    A case of high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) in a climber who made a rapid ascent on Mt McKinley (Denali), alaska is described. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid contained increased numbers of red blood cells and an abundance of haemosiderin laden macrophages consistent with alveolar haemorrhage. The timing of this finding indicates that alveolar haemorrhage began early during the ascent, well before the onset of symptoms. Although evidence of alveolar haemorrhage has been reported at necropsy in individuals dying of HAPE, previous reports have not shown the same abundance of haemosiderin laden macrophages in the BAL fluid. These findings suggest that alveolar haemorrhage is an early event in HAPE.
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ranking = 76.770379240131
keywords = macrophage
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5/163. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage syndrome due to 'silent' mitral valve regurgitation.

    A variety of clinical diseases are associated with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Although mitral valve disease can cause hemoptysis, it rarely is associated with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage at presentation. A 49-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with the abrupt onset of fever, anemia, dyspnea, azotemia, and diffuse alveolar infiltrates. Two-dimensional echocardiography done several months earlier to evaluate atypical chest pain had been unremarkable. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy 2 days after admission to the hospital revealed fresh blood throughout the tracheobronchial tree. The infiltrates resolved rapidly and completely during systemic steroid therapy only to reappear as the steroids were tapered, suggesting a beneficial therapeutic response. Results of serologic evaluation were negative. Transbronchial biopsies showed inflammation and hemosiderin-laden macrophages; no specific diagnosis was established. The patient was scheduled for open lung biopsy. The surgeon was concerned about the history of chest pain and requested placement of a pulmonary artery catheter, which revealed severe pulmonary hypertension. Transesophageal echocardiography and subsequent cardiac catheterization showed severe mitral regurgitation. mitral valve replacement resulted in complete elimination of symptoms.
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ranking = 38.385189620066
keywords = macrophage
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6/163. Use of high-dose corticosteroids and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for treatment of a child with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage after bone marrow transplantation: case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: Other than relapse, pulmonary complications are the most common cause of mortality in patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is one noninfectious pulmonary complication of BMT. Presenting clinical findings include nonproductive cough usually without hemoptysis, dyspnea, hypoxemia, a decrease in hematocrit, and diffuse infiltrates on chest radiograph. PATIENT: We report a case of DAH after allogeneic BMT in a 6-yr-old female patient. Although a chest radiograph revealed patchy bilateral alveolar densities and large volumes of bright red blood were suctioned from the endotracheal tube, there was no evidence of coagulopathy and no infectious agent was identified on examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood, and urine. INTERVENTION: The child was treated with high-dose corticosteroids and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and experienced a complete clinical recovery from her pulmonary disease. RESULTS: The definition, presenting symptoms, findings and timing, and associated risk factors of DAH after BMT are reviewed. Prospective hypotheses for the pathogenesis of DAH after BMT are presented. Evidence for the role of high-dose corticosteroids for treatment of DAH after BMT and the role of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for treatment of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in children with diffuse alveolar disease is also reviewed. CONCLUSION: This case supports the contention that early treatment with high-dose corticosteroids is warranted in children with DAH after BMT.
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keywords = bone
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7/163. Sequential vidarabine infusion in the treatment of polyoma virus-associated acute haemorrhagic cystitis late after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Late onset haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) occurs in 20-30% of allogeneic bone marrow transplant patients. Human polyomavirus BK (BKV) (or less frequently adenovirus) may be involved in the pathogenesis of viral HC and can represent a serious post-transplant complication. diagnosis and treatment of viral HC can be difficult and has an uncertain outcome. We report the efficacy of sequential vidarabine in the treatment of a patient with severe BKV-associated HC, despite the delay in implementing therapy. bone marrow transplantation (2000) 25, 319-320.
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keywords = bone
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8/163. bone marrow transplantation in severe Glanzmann's thrombasthenia with antiplatelet alloimmunization.

    Glanzmann's thrombasthenia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a lack of platelet aggregation due to the absence of platelet glycoprotein IIb and IIIa. Usually, the disease leads to mild hemorrhage but sometimes bleeding is severe enough to be life-threatening. We report the case of a 16-year-old girl, presenting with very severe type 1 Glanzmann's thrombasthenia, successfully treated with an HLA-identical sibling bone marrow transplant (BMT). We also update the clinical and laboratory data of her brother, who had received a BMT 16 years ago for the same disease. In the light of these two cases and two others published in the literature, we discuss the indications for BMT from HLA-identical sibling donors in Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. Alloimmunization against the missing platelet GPIIb/IIIa complex and severity of bleeding episodes may constitute sufficient criteria for allogeneic BMT after careful assessment of the risk-benefit of such a procedure, although this remains exceptional in this disease. bone marrow transplantation (2000) 25, 327-330.
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9/163. systemic vasculitis with bilateral perirenal haemorrhage in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia.

    The cases of two patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia associated with periarteritis nodosa-like, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody negative, systemic vasculitis, are reported. A 61 year old man was admitted with fever, diffuse myalgia, and abdominal pain. Blood and bone marrow examination showed chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. Vasculitis of the gall bladder was responsible for acalculous cholecystitis. A massive spontaneous bilateral perirenal haemorrhage occurred. A 73 year old woman with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia had been followed up for one year when unexplained fever occurred. Two months after the onset of fever, sudden abdominal pain was ascribed to spontaneous bilateral renal haematoma related to bilateral renal arterial aneurysms. Neuromuscular biopsy showed non-necrotising periarteriolar inflammation. To our knowledge, systemic vasculitis has never been reported in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. In our two cases a non-random association is suggested because (a) chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia is a rare myelodysplastic syndrome, (b) spontaneous bilateral perirenal haematoma is not a usual feature of periarteritis nodosa.
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keywords = bone
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10/163. Intraosseous ganglion of the temporomandibular joint presenting with otorrhea.

    A ganglion cyst of the temporomandibular joint is a rare entity that commonly presents as a minimally tender, preauricular mass. This benign cystic lesion, which is lined by synovium and can be found in association with other joints, occasionally erodes adjacent bone to form an intraosseous ganglion. We discuss an unusual case of an intraosseous temporomandibular ganglion cyst that presented with bloody otorrhea. Examination revealed an external auditory canal mass with radiographic evidence of temporal bone erosion. The cyst was excised using a combined approach to the glenoid fossa and mastoid. The management principals of this case and a pertinent review of the literature are included.
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