Cases reported "Hemorrhage"

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1/131. Acute torsion of the renal transplant after combined kidney-pancreas transplant.

    BACKGROUND: Surgical complications after combined kidney and pancreas transplantation are a major source of morbidity and mortality. Complications related to the pancreas occur with greater frequency as compared to renal complications. The occurrence in our practice of two cases of renal infarction resulting from torsion about the vascular pedicle led to our retrospective review of similar vascular complications after combined kidney and pancreas transplantation. methods: charts were reviewed retrospectively, and two patients were identified who experienced torsion about the vascular pedicle of an intra-abdominally placed renal allograft. RESULTS: Two patients who had received combined intraperitoneal kidney and pancreas transplantation presented at 16 and 11 months after transplant, respectively, with abdominal pain and decreased urine output. One patient had radiological documentation of abnormal rotation before the graft loss; unfortunately, the significance of this finding was missed. diagnosis was made in both patients at laparotomy, where the kidneys were infarcted secondary to torsion of the vascular pedicle. Both patients underwent transplant nephrectomy and subsequently received a successful second cadaveric renal transplant. CONCLUSIONS: The mechanism of this complication is a result of the intra-abdominal placement of the kidney, length of the vascular pedicle, excess ureteral length, and paucity of adhesions secondary to steroid administration. These factors contribute to abnormal mobility of the kidney. Technical modifications such as minimizing excess ureteral length and nephropexy may help to avoid this complication.
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2/131. Acute hemorrhage into the peritoneal cavity--a complication of chronic pancreatitis with pseudocyst: a case report from clinical practice.

    Acute hemorrhage due to a pseudocyst of the pancreas is a dangerous complication of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Without operative treatment, mortality is as high as 90%. Immediate recognition of this complication as well as urgent operative treatment allowing the survival of 70% of patients is imperative. Described is the case of a patient with CP and pseudocyst in which hyperamylasemia and unclarified anemia developed following sudden abdominal pain. The suspicion of hemorrhage into the peritoneal cavity was confirmed by selective visceral angiography showing hemorrhage from the splenic artery in the region of the hilus of the spleen. Operative treatment was successful. During the procedure, a ligature was applied to the hemorrhaging splenic artery and a splenectomy was carried out with 2500 ml of bloody contents being removed from the abdominal cavity. Acute hemorrhage into the peritoneal cavity as a complication of chronic pancreatitis with pseudocyst (CPP) requires immediate identification, confirmation by visceral angiography, and urgent operative treatment.
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3/131. Spontaneous intrahepatic hemorrhage and hepatic rupture in the hellp syndrome: four cases and a review.

    Subcapsular hemorrhage and hepatic rupture are unusual catastrophic complications of the HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets) syndrome. A high index of suspicion and prompt recognition are keys to proper diagnosis and management of affected patients. The optimal management of these patients is evolving. An aggressive multidisciplinary approach has considerably improved the morbidity and mortality associated with these complications. We present our experience with four cases of hepatic hemorrhage occurring in association with the hellp syndrome and review the literature on this subject. All of our patients were multiparous, and three had a history of eclampsia/preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy. All four patients developed intrahepatic hemorrhage; two developed hepatic rupture requiring surgical intervention. Three patients developed disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute renal failure. Two patients developed pericardial effusion, pleural effusions, and ascites. One patient died of septic complications after multiple surgical interventions.
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4/131. Henoch-Schonlein purpura and pulmonary hemorrhage: a report and literature review.

    Pulmonary hemorrhage, a rare complication of Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) reported primarily in adults and adolescents, is associated with significant mortality. Although it has been suggested that pulmonary hemorrhage also occurs in children with HSP, the few cases reported lack a clear differentiation from pauci-immune vasculitis. We report a prepubertal child with HSP, pulmonary hemorrhage, and immunofluorescence-documented IgA deposits on renal biopsy. Aggressive supportive management and steroid therapy led to successful recovery. A review of the current literature is presented. Because other conditions clinically mimic HSP, appropriate serological studies and a kidney biopsy to confirm the diagnosis should be performed in severely affected patients with renal disease.
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5/131. Painless left hemorrhagic pleural effusion: An unusual presentation of dissecting ascending aortic aneurysm.

    Aortic dissection is a catastrophic event that is commonly associated with severe pain, massive hemorrhage, and high mortality. In this report, we present the case of a 31-year-old man who presented with painless, hemorrhagic left pleural effusion. Further investigation revealed a 9-cm dissecting ascending aortic aneurysm that was thought to be due to a congenitally bicuspid aortic valve. We suggest that ascending aortic aneurysm be included in the differential diagnosis of hemorrhagic pleural effusion, even in the absence of the classic features of aortic dissection, such as chest pain, advanced age, or history of hypertension.
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6/131. Intraspinal hemorrhage complicating oral anticoagulant therapy: an unusual case of cervical hematomyelia and a review of the literature.

    Intraspinal hemorrhage is a rare but dangerous complication of anticoagulant therapy. It must be suspected in any patient taking anticoagulant agents who complains of local or referred spinal pain associated with limb weakness, sensory deficits, or urinary retention. We describe a patient with hematomyelia, review the literature on hematomyelia and other intraspinal hemorrhage syndromes, and summarize intraspinal hemorrhage associated with oral anticoagulant therapy. The patient (a 62-year-old man) resembled previously described patients with hematomyelia in age and sex. However, he was unusual in having cervical rather than thoracic localization. As with intracranial bleeding, the incidence of intraspinal hemorrhage associated with anticoagulant therapy might be minimized by close monitoring and tight control of the intensity of anticoagulation. However, it is noteworthy that many of the reported cases were anticoagulated in the therapeutic range. If intraspinal hemorrhage is suspected, anticoagulation must be reversed immediately. Emergency laminectomy and decompression of the spinal cord appear mandatory if permanent neurologic sequelae are to be minimized. A high index of suspicion, prompt recognition, and immediate intervention are essential to prevent major morbidity and mortality from intraspinal hemorrhage.
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7/131. Use of high-dose corticosteroids and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for treatment of a child with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage after bone marrow transplantation: case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: Other than relapse, pulmonary complications are the most common cause of mortality in patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is one noninfectious pulmonary complication of BMT. Presenting clinical findings include nonproductive cough usually without hemoptysis, dyspnea, hypoxemia, a decrease in hematocrit, and diffuse infiltrates on chest radiograph. PATIENT: We report a case of DAH after allogeneic BMT in a 6-yr-old female patient. Although a chest radiograph revealed patchy bilateral alveolar densities and large volumes of bright red blood were suctioned from the endotracheal tube, there was no evidence of coagulopathy and no infectious agent was identified on examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood, and urine. INTERVENTION: The child was treated with high-dose corticosteroids and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and experienced a complete clinical recovery from her pulmonary disease. RESULTS: The definition, presenting symptoms, findings and timing, and associated risk factors of DAH after BMT are reviewed. Prospective hypotheses for the pathogenesis of DAH after BMT are presented. Evidence for the role of high-dose corticosteroids for treatment of DAH after BMT and the role of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for treatment of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in children with diffuse alveolar disease is also reviewed. CONCLUSION: This case supports the contention that early treatment with high-dose corticosteroids is warranted in children with DAH after BMT.
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8/131. Bleeding risk and reproductive capacity among patients with factor xiii deficiency: a case presentation and review of the literature.

    factor xiii deficiency is an uncommon, inherited bleeding disorder that usually manifests in infancy or early childhood, involving both boys and girls. We present the case of a woman who had experienced two previous intracranial bleeding events, and was treated before and during her current pregnancy with factor XIII concentrate. Her pregnancy was successful, and she experienced an uncomplicated vaginal delivery. To better understand the issues surrounding bleeding, reproductive capacity, and management of factor xiii deficiency during pregnancy, we conducted a systematic literature review using medline from 1966 to December 1998. We also examined the bibliographic references from all articles, and included all cases, case reports, or case series of patients with factor xiii deficiency. We retrieved data on 117 patients from 37 articles, the majority of which had type II deficiency. Among untreated patients with type II factor xiii deficiency, the literature suggests an elevated mortality rate due to uncontrolled bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage. Because of its high degree of efficacy, the evidence supports the use of life long prophylactic therapy with at least monthly infusions of factor XIII concentrate, including during pregnancy. The opinion that women with type II factor xiii deficiency have inevitable recurrent abortions, or that men are sterile, is not well substantiated. No data were found on whether treatment alters male reproductive capacity. A policy of universal factor XIII replacement, starting in childhood, will likely enable more patients to attain reproductive status. The development of an international data registry would optimally address both bleeding risk and reproductive capacity among patients with factor xiii deficiency.
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9/131. Catastrophic outcomes of noncardiac surgery soon after coronary stenting.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical course of patients who have undergone coronary stent placement less than six weeks before noncardiac surgery. BACKGROUND: Surgical and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty revascularization performed before high-risk noncardiac surgery is expected to reduce perioperative cardiac morbidity and mortality. Perioperative and postoperative complications in patients who have undergone coronary stenting before a noncardiac surgery have not been studied. methods: Forty patients who underwent coronary stent placement less than six weeks before noncardiac surgery requiring a general anesthesia were included in the study (1-39 days, average: 13 days). The records were screened for the occurrence of adverse clinical events, including myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, peri- and postoperative bleeding and death. RESULTS: In 40 consecutive patients meeting the study criteria, there were seven myocardial infarctions (MIs), 11 major bleeding episodes and eight deaths. All deaths and MIs, as well as 8/11 bleeding episodes, occurred in patients subjected to surgery fewer than 14 days from stenting. Four patients expired after undergoing surgery one day after stenting. Based on electrocardiogram, enzymatic and angiographic evidence, stent thrombosis accounted for most of the fatal events. The time between stenting and surgery appeared to be the main determinant of outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Postponing elective noncardiac surgery for two to four weeks after coronary stenting should permit completion of the mandatory antiplatelet regimen, thereby reducing the risk of stent thrombosis and bleeding complications.
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10/131. Encouraging results in the treatment of haemorrhagic cystitis with estrogen - report of 10 cases and review of the literature.

    Haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or high-dose cyclophosphamide (CP) chemotherapy is a severe side-effect and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. In this report, we describe the clinical courses of 10 patients with HC and review the literature. The patients were treated with oral conjugated estrogen in an attempt to improve severe haemorrhagic cystitis. In seven patients positive effects were seen, haematuria resolved in all, but residual symptoms of dysuria remained for longer periods. In one patient application of estrogen was interrupted because of hepatotoxicity. Two patients failed all treatment modalities including oral estrogen because of terminal illness. We conclude that in the management of HC the administration of oral conjugated estrogen should be considered.
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