Cases reported "Hemorrhage"

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1/114. Potential utility of left heart contrast agents in diagnosis of myocardial rupture by 2-dimensional echocardiography.

    This case illustrates the use of intravenous injections of a contrast agent during 2-dimensional echocardiography in a patient with myocardial rupture after myocardial infarction. Intravenous injections of echocardiographic contrast agents may have potential use in the identification of intrapericardial hemorrhage after myocardial infarction caused by myocardial rupture or development of ventricular pseudoaneurysm.
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2/114. Intrahepatic hemorrhage after use of low-molecular-weight heparin for total hip arthroplasty.

    Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) has become a popular agent for prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis and thromboembolic disease after total joint arthroplasty. LMWH allows for consistent dosing in postoperative patients without the need for laboratory monitoring. hemorrhage is an uncommon but documented adverse reaction when using LMWH; however, intrahepatic hemorrhage has not been previously reported in conjunction with LMWH therapy. We report the case of a woman who suffered intrahepatic hemorrhage presenting with acute abdominal pain and vomiting after the use of enoxaparin for total hip arthroplasty.
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3/114. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in the antiphospholipid syndrome: spectrum of disease and treatment.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and treatment of patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) who develop diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. methods: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is an occasionally reported manifestation of the APS. The diagnosis, however, may be overlooked or manifestations attributed to another disease process. Seven episodes in 5 patients with primary APS were identified and retrospectively reviewed for presenting symptoms and signs, laboratory findings, and response to treatment. RESULTS: The severity of the condition varies, and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage may be the initial manifestation of APS. patients may present with symptoms ranging from cough, dyspnea, and fever with or without hemoptysis, to symptoms of acute respiratory failure. Hypoxemia and anemia are usually present. Other causes need to be excluded. bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage with or without biopsy often aid in confirming the diagnosis. The pathologic abnormality appears to be microvascular thrombosis with or without capillaritis. Treatment with corticosteroids usually leads to marked improvement. CONCLUSION: patients with APS may present with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage resulting in mild to life threatening symptoms. Prompt and thorough evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and treatment with corticosteroids usually leads to rapid improvement. The clinical setting will dictate whether other therapies such as immunosuppressive agents or intravenous immunoglobulin are required.
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4/114. Posttraumatic hypertension secondary to adrenal hemorrhage mimicking pheochromocytoma: case report.

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a mass 3 x 4 cm in size located in the right adrenal gland together with extreme hypertension, tripled urine levels for normetanephrine, and normal plasmatic levels of metanephrines. The patient had suffered a fall from a height of 2.5 meters before hospitalization. [123I]MIBG-scan was repeatedly positive in the area of the right adrenal gland. At laparotomy under alpha-adrenergic blocking agents, the suspected pheochromocytoma was histologically confirmed as hematoma. After resection of the adrenal gland, blood pressure returned to normal without drug therapy as did metanephrine levels in urine. Although adrenal insufficiency after distension of the gland caused by hemorrhage has been reported, there are no data available regarding the mimicking of a hormonally active pheochromocytoma. We conclude that intra-adrenal pressure rise caused by hematoma may cause partial ischemic necrosis to the gland but may also induce reactive hyperplasia with periodic excessive secretion of catecholamines. This interpretation is consistent with the finding that plasma levels of catecholamines were normal in contrast to the urinary normetanephrines in the presented case. It might be worthwhile to investigate patients with intra-adrenal hemorrhage immediately after sustaining multiple injuries and in the posttraumatic course of several months up to 1 or more years together with verification of abnormal urinary excretion of metanephrines as a sign of impaired adrenal function.
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5/114. Use of recombinant factor viia (NovoSeven) in a haemophilia A patient with inhibitor in kuwait.

    Development of inhibitors is a known complication in some haemophiliacs receiving coagulation factor replacement therapy. We report on the successful management of a young boy with haemophilia A with inhibitor using recombinant factor viia. We had failed to control bleeding in this patient following his circumcision, despite infusion with high doses of factor viii concentrate for 2 weeks. Recombinant factor viia is a useful 'factor viii bypassing agent' for the control of bleeding in patients with haemophilia A and B who develop inhibitors. We suggest that severely affected haemophiliacs should be absolved of ritual circumcision as a protective measure against what might become a life-threatening haemorrhage - especially in those with inhibitors.
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6/114. Malignant hypertension with a rare complication of pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage.

    A 34-year-old Japanese male was admitted to Okayama University Hospital with severe hypertension, rapidly progressive renal failure, blurred vision, dyspnea and hemoptysis. Clinical diagnosis of malignant hypertension was given and antihypertensive therapy and hemodialysis were immediately started. Renal biopsy was performed on the sixth day in hospital to examine the underlying disease, such as microscopic form of polyarteritis, since the complaint of hemoptysis and pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage was noted by computed tomography of the lungs. Typical pathological changes of malignant hypertension, i.e. fibrinoid necrosis of the afferent arterioles and proliferative endoarteritis at the interlobular arteries were observed. There was no evidence of active necrotizing glomerulonephritis and crescent formation. Renal function was gradually recovered and pulmonary hemorrhage completely disappeared by treatment with antihypertensive agents. The authors report a case of malignant hypertension with a rare complication of pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage and speculate that it may be related to vascular injuries at the alveolar capillary level caused by malignant hypertension.
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7/114. Intraspinal hemorrhage complicating oral anticoagulant therapy: an unusual case of cervical hematomyelia and a review of the literature.

    Intraspinal hemorrhage is a rare but dangerous complication of anticoagulant therapy. It must be suspected in any patient taking anticoagulant agents who complains of local or referred spinal pain associated with limb weakness, sensory deficits, or urinary retention. We describe a patient with hematomyelia, review the literature on hematomyelia and other intraspinal hemorrhage syndromes, and summarize intraspinal hemorrhage associated with oral anticoagulant therapy. The patient (a 62-year-old man) resembled previously described patients with hematomyelia in age and sex. However, he was unusual in having cervical rather than thoracic localization. As with intracranial bleeding, the incidence of intraspinal hemorrhage associated with anticoagulant therapy might be minimized by close monitoring and tight control of the intensity of anticoagulation. However, it is noteworthy that many of the reported cases were anticoagulated in the therapeutic range. If intraspinal hemorrhage is suspected, anticoagulation must be reversed immediately. Emergency laminectomy and decompression of the spinal cord appear mandatory if permanent neurologic sequelae are to be minimized. A high index of suspicion, prompt recognition, and immediate intervention are essential to prevent major morbidity and mortality from intraspinal hemorrhage.
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8/114. Use of high-dose corticosteroids and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for treatment of a child with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage after bone marrow transplantation: case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: Other than relapse, pulmonary complications are the most common cause of mortality in patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is one noninfectious pulmonary complication of BMT. Presenting clinical findings include nonproductive cough usually without hemoptysis, dyspnea, hypoxemia, a decrease in hematocrit, and diffuse infiltrates on chest radiograph. PATIENT: We report a case of DAH after allogeneic BMT in a 6-yr-old female patient. Although a chest radiograph revealed patchy bilateral alveolar densities and large volumes of bright red blood were suctioned from the endotracheal tube, there was no evidence of coagulopathy and no infectious agent was identified on examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood, and urine. INTERVENTION: The child was treated with high-dose corticosteroids and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and experienced a complete clinical recovery from her pulmonary disease. RESULTS: The definition, presenting symptoms, findings and timing, and associated risk factors of DAH after BMT are reviewed. Prospective hypotheses for the pathogenesis of DAH after BMT are presented. Evidence for the role of high-dose corticosteroids for treatment of DAH after BMT and the role of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for treatment of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in children with diffuse alveolar disease is also reviewed. CONCLUSION: This case supports the contention that early treatment with high-dose corticosteroids is warranted in children with DAH after BMT.
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9/114. Recombinant activated factor VII in children with acute bleeding resulting from liver failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) was given to three children with acute bleeding resulting from liver failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Cases I and II (girls aged 3 years and 6 years, respectively) were diagnosed with dengue hemorrhagic fever and prolonged shock. Case III, a boy aged 9 months, underwent left lobe hepatectomy for a hepatoblastoma, during which 60% of his liver was removed. This case was complicated by myoglobinuria, liver and renal impairment and early disseminated intravascular coagulation. All three patients exhibited active bleeding. Cases I and II received rFVIIa combined with other blood component replacement, while Case III received rFVIIa as the only hemostatic agent. A bolus of 40-180 microg/kg b.w. was administered followed by 16.5-33 microg/kg b.w. per h continuous infusion. As a result, bleeding was controlled, the prothrombin time was shortened and FVII clotting activity was significantly increased. In conclusion, rFVIIa has shown some efficacy in controlling acute bleeding in children with liver failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
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10/114. Olanzapine-induced acute pancreatitis.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the first published case of olanzapine-induced acute pancreatitis. CASE SUMMARY: A 72-year-old white woman was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis and unintentional verapamil overdose. The patient did not consume alcohol and had undergone a cholecystectomy in the past; other medical causes of pancreatitis had been ruled out. She was taking several medications chronically, but olanzapine was started six days prior to the onset of acute abdominal symptoms. According to the Naranjo probability scale, olanzapine was considered the probable cause of acute pancreatitis in this patient. Following a 12-day stay in the ICU, the patient was transferred to the ward where she died a few days later of unrelenting peritonitis secondary to acute pancreatitis. DISCUSSION: A literature search (1966-July 2000) and contact with the manufacturer failed to detect any published reports of acute pancreatitis associated with olanzapine. The contribution of concomitant medications taken prior to ICU admission in initiating or worsening the pancreatitis was deemed unlikely. More common causes of acute pancreatitis, such as ethanol consumption and gallstones, were also ruled out in this patient. Therefore, olanzapine was rated as a probable cause for acute pancreatitis in our patient. The mechanism of this adverse reaction is unknown. CONCLUSIONS: This is believed to be the first published report suspecting olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic agent, to have caused acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis in a patient, leading to admission to the ICU and, eventually, death secondary to unrelenting peritonitis.
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