Cases reported "Hemorrhage"

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11/114. Bleeding ears: a case of munchausen syndrome by proxy.

    A case is presented of a child who initially presented with genuine aural symptoms and pathology. Over a period of time it became apparent that the persistent aural bleeding, which is an uncommon feature of Chronic Suppurative otitis media, was the result of trauma inflicted by its mother; a case of munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP).
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12/114. Spontaneous inhibitors to coagulation factors.

    Spontaneous inhibitors to coagulation factors are autoantibodies that usually appear in the elderly, but may also occur in patients with immunological disorders such as lupus, lymphoma, asthma or drug reactions. Most antibodies are directed against factor viii, but any coagulation protein may be affected. They should be suspected in individuals who previously had normal haemostasis, but who now begin to experience bleeding into the skin and muscles, or suffer haemorrhages after routine procedures such as insertion of vascular catheters, intramuscular injections, or minor surgery. The haemostasis laboratory is critical in identifying the particular inhibitor and quantitating its potency. factor viii inhibitors prolong the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) but not the prothrombin time (PT), and incubating mixtures of patient plasma and normal plasma enhances the prolongation of the clotting time. The Bethesda assay provides a rough assessment of inhibitor potency. Inhibitors of von willebrand factor prolong the bleeding time and impair ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation. Factor V inhibitors are associated with a prolonged PTT and PT, not correctable with normal plasma. patients will often have a history of exposure to bovine thrombin in fibrin glue. The antibodies most difficult to recognize are those that alter fibrin polymerization or stabilization. Abnormal clot retraction or clot solubility in urea solutions are an important clue. The management of these disorders depends on characterization of the inhibitor, and using appropriate clotting factor concentrates to control acute bleeding. For example, recombinant human factor viii or desmopressin may be effective for patients with low titre factor viii inhibitors, whereas porcine factor viii, recombinant factor Vlla, or prothrombin complex concentrates stem bleeding in those with high titres. Inhibitors of von willebrand factor may be amenable to desmopressin, cryoprecipitate, or von willebrand factor concentrates. Some patients with factor V inhibitors have responded to platelet transfusions, as the platelet factor V may be shielded from the autoantibody. Bleeding due to factor xiii inhibitors may be managed with fibrogammin, a factor xiii concentrate. All patients should be treated for underlying disorders and given drugs such as corticosteroids and cytotoxic agents to suppress inhibitor formation. Major advances in new immunosuppressive technologies, such as monoclonal B-cell antibodies, offer hope of more effective therapies for spontaneous inhibitors to coagulation factors.
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13/114. hepatitis b-related polyarteritis nodosa complicated by pulmonary hemorrhage.

    A 34-year-old man presented with fever, weight loss, paresthesia, abdominal pain, and hypertension. He had hepatitis b antigenemia, with negative antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, antinuclear antibody, and antiglomerular basement membrane serology results. Renal arteriography showed multiple intrarenal microaneurysms. In spite of therapy with antiviral agents (lamivudine, famciclovir), prednisone, cyclophosphamide, and plasmapheresis, renal function deteriorated. He later developed rapidly progressive dyspnea and hemoptysis. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage was confirmed by bronchoscopy. He died of respiratory failure. The cause of pulmonary hemorrhage in this case of polyarteritis nodosa is unclear, but may include underlying capillaritis, cocaine-induced pulmonary hemorrhage, or recurrent attacks of malignant hypertension.
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14/114. Bleeding hepatic adenoma: expectant treatment to limit the extent of liver resection.

    Hepatic adenomas (HAs) are benign but can present as an acute surgical emergency. The relationship between HA and oral contraceptives (OCs) has been well documented and there have been several reports of tumor regression after the withdrawal of hormonal agents. However, not all HAs regress in this manner; have been reported to remain stable, increase in size, hemorrhage, or rarely, undergo malignant transformation. Given the unpredictable nature of these lesions they are generally treated surgically. In July 1995 a patient with a 6-year history of OC use was admitted with a history of sudden-onset right upper quadrant abdominal pain of 2 days' duration. The clinical picture and imaging studies led to the diagnosis of a bleeding hepatic adenoma without rupture. She was treated expectantly for a period of 14 months before surgery. This allowed the tumor to significantly decrease in size and thus limit the extent of resection. If the patient presented in this case had undergone surgery at the time of initial diagnosis a right hepatic lobectomy as opposed to a wedge resection would have been required. Treating this patient expectantly significantly decreased the potential morbidity associated with a larger resection.
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15/114. infarction followed by hemorrhage in pituitary adenoma due to endocrine stimulation test.

    A 63-year-old man, who presented with visual field loss due to pituitary tumor, received an intravenous bolus injection of thyrotropin and gonadotropin releasing hormones and insulin as a preoperative evaluation. He complained of severe headache and nausea 2 hours after injection. Emergent CT scan showed no evidence of intratumoral hemorrhage. The next day, his visual field became null. MR images revealed heterogeneous mixed intensity lesions. Under diagnosis of pituitary apoplexy, he underwent transsphenoidal tumor removal 30 hours after onset. Intraoperative and pathological findings showed tumor hemorrhage and adjacent necrotic change. Fourteen cases with sufficient clinical detail in the literature are reviewed: All of the cases had macroadenoma with suprasellar extension. Testing agents were gonadotropin and thyrotropin releasing hormones in 92.9% and 85.7% of cases, respectively. headache was an initial symptom and started within two hours in all cases but one. Half of the cases showed no change on CT scan. However, tumor hemorrhage was evidenced in 92.9% of cases with or without necrosis due to ischemic change, intraoperatively or pathologically. It is speculated that pituitary apoplexy often starts with infarction possibly due to vasoactive effect of testing agents and later develops into hemorrhage. Therefore, it is necessary to observe patients closely at least a few hours after endocrine stimulation test, and MR imaging may make an earlier diagnosis for the pituitary apoplexy since CT scan often shows no density change in the pituitary adenoma.
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16/114. CMV reactivation induced bk virus-associated late onset hemorrhagic cystitis after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a known complication of stem cell transplantation. In contrast to early-onset HC that is usually attributed to cyclophosphamide and occurs within a few days of infusion, late onset HC is associated with viral infection. In recent years bk virus has emerged as an important causative agent. We describe two patients who developed late onset HC (38 and 92 days post transplant) associated with BK viruria concomitant with CMV reactivation and suggest a possible role of CMV in the process of bk virus dna replication.
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17/114. Boon's disease: hemorrhagic cystitis in conjunction with massive exfoliation of degenerated urothelial cells (apoptosis?) during intercontinental flights in an otherwise healthy person.

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is a well-defined clinical emergency, usually occurring in the course of treatment with toxic agents such as cyclophosphamide. We present a case of hemorrhagic cystitis in an otherwise completely healthy female. The three documented attacks were severe and started during intercontinental flights. This type of hemorrhagic cystitis as a disease proved to be a boon, treatable by drinking large amounts of water, and was diagnosed by and in Dr. Boon; thus was the appellation Boon's disease coined. Cellular changes in the urine specimen taken after onset of the disease indicated massive exfoliation of degenerated urothelial cells with morphological features suggestive of apoptosis. It seems likely that this process can be initiated by any event which is associated with compromise of vitality of the urinary bladder lining, such as may occur in hypovolemia. This type of hemorrhagic cystitis is most probably not uncommon in susceptible individuals during intercontinental flights.
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18/114. Systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax--a case report.

    Despite frequent pleuro-pulmonary involvement, spontaneous pneumothorax is rare in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we report a 17-year-old female patient with SLE, complicated by multiple organs involvement. She initially presented with interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary hemorrhage, followed by spontaneous pneumothorax and CNS involvement. The patient was treated with immunosuppressive agents, including steroid and cyclophosphamide pulse therapies. Spontaneous pneumothorax happened to her once again at a different location during treatment. After aggressive therapy, the disease activity of SLE gradually diminished, and pneumothorax had not recurred during the further follow-up. Therefore, the pneumothorax may occur in SLE patients with high disease activity.
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19/114. Acute renal failure after thrombotic agent therapy due to excessive bleeding after cosmetic liposuction.

    suction lipoplasty is practiced popularly for obesity control and cosmetic purposes and severe complications are rare. We report the first documented case of acute renal failure, with anuric period, that developed after excessive bleeding following cosmetic liposuction. The use of homocoagulase and the presence of rhabdomyolysis might have contributed to the acute renal failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation observed in this case.
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20/114. Intraspinal oxidised cellulose (Surgicel) causing delayed paraplegia after thoracotomy--a report of three cases.

    Oxidised regenerated cellulose (Surgicel) is a commonly used haemostatic agent in neurosurgery, thoracic surgery, and orthopaedics. We present three cases of paraplegia after thoracic surgery during which oxidised cellulose had been used during thoracotomy for haemorrhage control, and was later found to have passed through the intervertebral foramen causing spinal cord compression. In all intraspinal and perispinal procedures, the over-liberal use of Surgicel should be avoided, and attempts made to remove all excess Surgicel once adequate haemostasis is obtained.
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