Cases reported "Hemorrhage"

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1/30. Pericardial hemorrhage caused by costal exostosis.

    This report describes a 21-year-old man who presented with pericardial hemorrhage due to a puncture wound of the pericardium by an inward-facing exostosis of the left fifth rib.
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2/30. Intracholecystic hemorrhage: an atypical complication after liver needle biopsy.

    The authors report an unusual case of intracholecystic hemorrhage related to liver biopsy in a 23-year-old man. Echography and computed tomography evidenced changes in density within the gallbladder which were probably caused by hemorrhagic discharge. Although the mechanism by which liver biopsy induced intracholecystic hemorrhage is unclear, the authors believe that this iatrogenic complication was probably the result of microlesions of the gallbladder wall caused by needle puncture: the lesions extended into the submucosa and provoked slow hematic leakage. The pain syndrome began 48 hours after biopsy. The peculiarity of this case report was confirmed by the fact that no bile was aspirated, no choleperitoneum was found, and no gallbladder tissue was detected in the sample. The authors conclude by recommending clinical and echographic control following liver biopsy.
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3/30. Frequency and significance of acute intracystic hemorrhage during EUS-FNA of cystic lesions of the pancreas.

    BACKGROUND: Complications from EUS-guided FNA of cystic lesions of the pancreas are infrequent. Although several studies have evaluated infectious complications of EUS-guided FNA in this setting, the frequency and the clinical significance of intracystic hemorrhage have not been determined. This study assessed the frequency of acute intracystic hemorrhage during EUS-guided FNA of pancreatic cystic lesions. The characteristic EUS appearance is described. methods: EUS-guided FNA of pancreatic cyst lesions was performed in 50 patients (July 2000 to June 2003). Patients were followed prospectively for the development of complications. OBSERVATIONS: Acute intracystic hemorrhage occurred during EUS-guided FNA at the site of aspiration in 3 patients (6%: 95% confidence interval [1.3%, 16.6%]). Endosonographically, the bleeding manifested as a small hyperechoic area at the puncture site that progressed gradually over a few minutes to involve the majority of the cyst cavity. EUS-guided FNA was terminated when bleeding was observed. One patient was asymptomatic, but two patients experienced abdominal pain transiently. All patients were treated with a short course of orally administered antibiotics and were observed as outpatients. Clinical history and laboratory parameters did not predict which patients were at risk for intracystic hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: Acute intracystic hemorrhage is a rare complication of EUS-guided FNA; it has a characteristic EUS appearance. Recognition of this event is important, because it permits termination of the procedure and thereby minimizes the potential for more serious bleeding.
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4/30. Use of recombinant factor viia prior to lumbar puncture in pediatric patients with acute leukemia.

    The persistence of abnormal coagulation test results after standard treatment with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) poses significant problems in children with acute leukemia requiring a diagnostic lumbar puncture and intrathecal chemotherapy. We report the prophylactic use of a single dose of 90 microg/kg recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in three children and the rapid correction of abnormal coagulation test results previously not corrected by FFP. Administration of rFVIIa was useful in avoiding a delay of diagnostic lumbar punctures and intrathecal chemotherapy. Hemorrhagic complications and adverse effects of rFVIIa were not observed. Prospective evaluation of this indication and dose appears warranted. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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5/30. Emergent endovascular treatment with direct carotid puncture for exsanguinating Carotid Blowout Syndrome.

    INTRODUCTION: Carotid Blowout Syndrome (CBS) carries an exceedingly high mortality rate. Various established endovascular techniques are successful in treating less acute CBS, but exsanguinating patients with hemodynamic compromise continue to pose a significant clinical challenge. methods: We report a 53-year-old male with squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tongue presented with a sentinel hemoptysis followed by a massive oral hemorrhage. The patient suffered a cardiac arrest secondary to acute blood loss, from which he was successfully resuscitated. RESULTS: An occlusion technique is presented involving direct carotid puncture for successful treatment of hemodynamically unstable, exsanguinating patients. CONCLUSION: This technique accomplishes rapid arrest of exsanguination, minimal hemorrhage site manipulation, and successful carotid occlusion.
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6/30. The use of a percutaneous closure device for closure of an accidental puncture of the aortic arch; a simple solution for a difficult problem.

    Percutaneous closure devices are now often used for closure of the femoral puncture site after percutaneous vascular interventions. We describe a case were an accidental puncture in the aortic arch during placement of a central venous catheter is successfully closed with a closure device.
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7/30. Lower limb ischemic complications after the use of arterial puncture closure devices.

    We report three cases of lower limb ischemia occurring after the use of arterial puncture closure devices (APCDs). In two patients, who have undergone percutaneous angioplasty of lower limb arteries, the Angio-Seal APCD led to thrombosis of the common femoral artery. In another patient who has undergone coronary angiography, this device has led to dissection of the common femoral artery. Since these observations seem to not be merely sporadic, radiologists and cardiologists as well as vascular surgeons should be aware of their possible occurrence in order to avoid these complications and to provide promptly an adequate treatment.
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8/30. Retroperitoneal hemorrhage from inferior epigastric artery: value of femoral angiography for detection and management.

    Laceration of the inferior epigastric artery during cardiac catheterization is under-reported in the literature, but it is a serious complication leading to retroperitoneal hemorrhage and even death. We report on two cases of retroperitoneal bleeding from unintentional puncture of the inferior epigastric artery during cardiac catheterization. Femoral angiography is a valuable tool to promptly recognize this complication.
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9/30. Prolonged hypofibrinogenemia and protein c activation after envenoming by Echis carinatus sochureki.

    Following envenomization by Echis carinatus sochureki, a professional snake handler developed a profound coagulopathy manifested by hemorrhage from the bite site, venipuncture sites and gums; coagulation testing revealed prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times greater than 150 seconds, a fibrinogen of 0 mg%, and marked elevation of fibrin degradation products. In addition, protein c antigen levels were undetectable. The coagulopathy was treated with cryoprecipitate; two different antivenoms were also administered with uncertain benefit. Subsequently, the properties of the venom and antivenoms were studied. Venom did not directly clot fibrinogen; however, venom concentrations as low as 0.2 micrograms/ml caused significant prothrombin activation. In addition, venom activated protein c in the absence of thrombomodulin, and this activity was inhibited by hirudin. The ability of four commercial antivenoms to neutralize the venom prothrombinase and hemorrhagic activity was measured. Three of the four antivenoms partially neutralized venom-induced prothrombin activation. Extreme differences in efficacy were found among the four antivenoms in neutralizing venom hemorrhagic activity in mice. This case illustrates the difficulty in managing the complex coagulopathy that can result from exotic snake envenomization, and identifies a new coagulant property of Echis carinatus venom (protein c activation).
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10/30. The kasabach-merritt syndrome: severe bleeding disorder caused by celiac arteriography--reversal by heparin treatment.

    Studies are presented on a 62-yr-old woman with extreme hepatomegaly due to a giant hemangioma with alterations in the clotting system indicating a consumption coagulopathy. There was a fall of hemoglobin, fibrinogen, antithrombin iii, and platelet number after arteriography of the truncus celiacus. Furthermore, there was sustained bleeding in the patient's right thigh caused by puncture of the arteria femoralis. Continuous administration of iv heparin corrected the clotting disorder including a rise in platelets from 95,000/microliters to 148,000/microliters, permitting surgical removement of the hematoma. Celiacography is a useful tool for the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomata, as well as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Being an invasive technique, it requires testing for possible consumption coagulopathy if used in patients with hemangiomatosis. Its application should be restricted to cases in which exact diagnosis cannot be established by other means.
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