Cases reported "Hemorrhage"

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1/96. Transcatheter gelfoam embolization of posttraumatic bleeding pseudoaneurysms.

    Diagnostic angiography combined with transcatheter therapeutic embolization is a simple and effective means of treating complex clinical situations associated with posttraumatic hemorrhage. Bleeding pseudoaneurysms, even when large, can be readily managed by this combined modality with resultant decrease in morbidity and hospital stay. Five patients with posttraumatic pseudoaneurysms are presented. All five were treated by transcatheter therapeutic embolization with Gelfoam. Of these five cases, three involved extremities, one involved the retroperitoneal space, and the last was of renal origin. Two of the five cases still required surgical intervention after initial successful therapeutic embolization, one for recurrent bleeding from collaterals and the other for evacuation of a massive pseudoaneurysm which was causing distraction of fracture fragments. The early use of angiography in suspected cases of posttraumatic hemorrhage, together with careful evaluation of potential collateral supply, is stressed. The use of transcatheter therapeutic embolization in the extremities as presented here is yet another example of the ever-broadening applicability of this technique.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fracture
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2/96. Case report: a nursing challenge, the unstable pelvic fracture.

    A case report is presented that describes the initial care of a severely injured patient who was hemodynamically unstable. The discussion highlights the process used to recognize life-threatening injuries, to differentiate internal sources of hemorrhage, to provide damage-control surgery, and to stop further bleeding with an interventional radiologic examination. The emergency nursing care of a patient with unstable pelvic trauma is included.
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ranking = 4
keywords = fracture
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3/96. Emergency portacaval shunt for control of hemorrhage from a parenchymal fracture after adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation.

    As more adults undergo transplantation with partial liver grafts, the unique features of these segments and their clinical significance will become apparent. A patient presented with life-threatening hemorrhage from an iatrogenic laceration to a right lobe graft 11 days after transplantation. The creation of a portacaval shunt effectively controlled the bleeding, allowing more elective replacement of the organ with another right lobe graft. The regeneration process combined with increased portal blood flow and relative outflow limitation may have set the stage for this complication. Any disruption of the liver parenchyma during transplantation should be securely repaired and followed cautiously. Portacaval shunting is an option for controlling hemorrhage from the liver in transplant recipients. The timely availability of a second organ was likely the ultimate determinant of survival for this patient.
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ranking = 4
keywords = fracture
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4/96. Current management of pelvic fractures.

    Blunt pelvic injuries are becoming more common in this era of high-speed, high-energy collisions. At least 5% of blunt injuries result in pelvic fracture. With mortality rates approaching 55% for severe crush injuries of the pelvis, early stabilization and control of bleeding, as well as assessment for other injuries, requires a focused, multidisciplinary approach. We discuss early management and stabilization of severe pelvic fractures.
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ranking = 6
keywords = fracture
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5/96. cardiac tamponade due to post-cardiac injury syndrome in a patient with severe haemophilia A and hiv-1 infection.

    An 18-year-old man with severe haemophilia A (FVIII:C < 1%) and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (hiv-1) infection was admitted to the hospital with fever and chest pain for 7 days. Eight weeks prior to his admission he had an accident for which he underwent, at another hospital, clinical and laboratory examination that revealed bone fractures of the nose cavity, and he was given factor viii concentrates for seven days due to nasal bleeding. On admission, chest roentgenogram showed a large cardiac silhouette and echocardiography confirmed the presence of a large quantity of pericardial fluid. A presumptive diagnosis of the post-cardiac injury syndrome was made and he was given anti-inflammatory drugs plus infusion of recombinant factor viii concentrate (35 units kg-1 b.i.d.). On the seventh day he exhibited cardiac tamponade for which he underwent subxiphoid pericardiotomy with drainage of approximately 1500 mL of bloody exudate. He had an uncomplicated recovery and 10 days later he left hospital. He was given a continuous prophylactic treatment of 15 units kg-1 of recombinant FVIII every 2 days for 6 months, and 30 months after this episode the patient is free of any symptom.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fracture
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6/96. Hypofibrinogenaemia with compound heterozygosity for two gamma chain mutations - gamma 82 Ala-->Gly and an intron two GT-->AT splice site mutation.

    We investigated the molecular basis of hypofibrinogenaemia in a woman with a history of recurrent, pregnancy-associated bleeding, and miscarriage. She had a Clauss fibrinogen of 0.9 mg/ml and SDS PAGE of purified fibrinogen showed a normal pattern of chains. However careful inspection of reverse phase chain separation profiles showed apparent homozygosity for a more hydrophilic form of the gamma chain. dna Sequencing showed only heterozygosity for a CGT-->GGT (Ala-->Gly) mutation at codon gamma82, but further sequencing showed an additional GT splice sequence mutation at the 5' end of intron 2 of the gamma gene. Translation of mRNA containing this intron would result in premature truncation explaining the phenotypic homozygosity of the gamma82 Ala-->Gly substitution. The patient's sister had a mild bleeding disorder with hypofibrinogenaemia and she too was a compound heterozygote for the y mutations. Her nephew had only the novel splice site mutation, while her mother and daughter inherited only the gamma82 Ala-->Gly substitution.
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ranking = 0.13919220332641
keywords = compound
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7/96. Sudden death from pelvic hemorrhage after bilateral central fracture dislocations of the hip due to an epileptic seizure.

    Fracture and dislocation of major joints may be caused by the forceful tonic muscular contractions of seizure activity. A 77-year-old man who was found dead in bed with no sign of external trauma had bilateral central fracture dislocations of the femoral head through the acetabular floor with fatal pelvic hemorrhage and extensive pulmonary fat and bone marrow embolism. He had epilepsy, but the last seizure was 6 years earlier, and he had long discontinued medication. The fractures were attributed to a new unwitnessed seizure. This is the twentieth case of central fracture dislocation of the hip since 1970, when better anesthesia eliminated convulsive therapy-induced fractures. The authors review these 20 cases. seizures followed inflammation, infarction or neoplasia of the brain, eclampsia, metabolic or iatrogenic causes, or epilepsy (6 cases, 2 of which had no prior seizures for 5 years). There were 11 men (mean age, 64 years) and 9 women (mean age, 47 years). Fractures were unilateral in 13 and bilateral in 7. Additional fractures (in vertebrae, shoulders, or femur) were present in eight. Only eight had prior bone disease. Local symptoms led to diagnosis in most, but two were identified incidentally on imaging. The current patient was the only one to die suddenly, but six other patients presented with shock and three died (one of whom had injuries that led to a suspicion of manslaughter). Central fracture-dislocation of the hip is a rare and little known consequence of seizures, with strong potential for misdiagnosis and lethal complications.
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ranking = 10
keywords = fracture
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8/96. life-threatening bleeding in a facial fracture.

    life-threatening bleeding in facial fractures is considered rare, and most reports do not recommend a precise treatment guideline. Although various methods have been suggested, they are unpredictable in efficacy and may lead to irreversible shock. To avoid irreversible shock, early detection and correct, effective treatment are mandatory. The authors report a patient who presented with a complex midface fracture after falling on June 23, 1999. life-threatening oronasal bleeding developed 1 hour after arriving at the emergency room. Initial nasal packing failed to stop the nasal bleeding. After resuscitation, the patient's vital signs were stable but bleeding persisted. angiography showed diffuse extravasation of contrast medium over the territory of the right internal maxillary artery. Embolization was performed successfully to stop the bleeding. The authors review the literature regarding the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of life-threatening facial fracture. In the literature, the lack of a precise definition leads to various results by various treatments. The authors have formulated a succinct treatment guideline. They favor angiographic embolization as the first choice of treatment when tight nasal and/or oral packing fails.
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ranking = 7
keywords = fracture
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9/96. Fracture of the sella turcica.

    A patient with a fracture of the sella turcica, visible on lateral X-ray films of the skull, is described. This fracture, although not diagnosed during life, was present in approximately 20 per cent of a series of consecutive autopsies on patients who died of head injury. The significance of this injury to the hypothalamopituitary axis is discussed and methods of investigation suggested.
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ranking = 2.0232798120428
keywords = fracture, skull
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10/96. Another cause for bilateral haemorrhagic otorrhoea following trauma.

    Bleeding from the external auditory meatus (haemorrhagic otorrhoea) following head trauma is usually attributed to a basal skull fracture. However, it may also result from unsuspected facial trauma. We describe a case that highlights an usual but important differential diagnosis for bilateral haemorrhagic otorrhoea.
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ranking = 3.9314614415074
keywords = skull fracture, fracture, skull
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