Cases reported "Hemorrhage"

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1/3387. Systemic infection with Alaria americana (trematoda).

    Alaria americana is a trematode, the adult of which is found in mammalian carnivores. The first case of disseminated human infection by the mesocercarial stage of this worm occurred in a 24-year-old man. The infection possibly was acquired by the eating of inadequately cooked frogs, which are intermediate hosts of the worm. The diagnosis was made during life by lung biopsy and confirmed at autopsy. The mesocercariae were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes, liver, myocardium, pancreas and surrounding adipose tissue, spleen, kidney, lungs, brain and spinal cord. There was no host reaction to the parasites. Granulomas were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes and liver, but the worms were not identified in them. hypersensitivity vasculitis and a bleeding diathesis due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and a circulating anticoagulant caused his death 8 days after the onset of his illness. ( info)

2/3387. Delayed hemorrhage after nonoperative management of blunt hepatic trauma in children: a rare but significant event.

    PURPOSE: Nonoperative management of blunt hepatic injury (BHI) has become widely accepted in hemodynamically stable children without ongoing transfusion requirements. However, late hemorrhage, especially after discharge from the hospital can be devastating. The authors report the occurrence of serious late hemorrhage and the sentinel signs and symptoms in children at risk for this complication. methods: Nonoperative management of hemodynamically stable children included computed tomography (CT) evaluation on admission and hospitalization with bed rest for 7 days, regardless of injury grade. Activity was restricted for 3 months after discharge. Hepatic injuries were classified according to grade, amount of hemoperitoneum, and periportal hypoattenuation. RESULTS: Over 5 years, nonoperative management was successful in 74 of 75 children. One child returned to the hospital 3 days after discharge with recurrent hemorrhage necessitating surgical control. review of the CT findings demonstrated that he was the only child with severe liver injury in all four classifications. A second child, initially treated at an outside hospital, presented 10 days after injury with ongoing bleeding and died despite surgical intervention. Only the two children with delayed bleeding had persistent right abdominal and shoulder discomfort in the week after BHI. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support nonoperative management of BHI. However, late hemorrhage heralded by persistence of right abdominal and shoulder pain may occur in children with severe hepatic trauma and high injury severity scores in multiple classifications. ( info)

3/3387. leukostasis followed by hemorrhage complicating the initiation of chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and hyperleukocytosis: a clinicopathologic report of four cases.

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary and cerebral leukostasis, or parenchymal hemorrhage in these organs, are well-known early complications developing in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), particularly when myelomonocytic features, hyperleukocytosis, and/or a coagulation disorder are initially present. Commonly, these complications arise during increasing leukocyte counts (WBCs). methods: The authors describe four patients with AML and hyperleukocytosis who developed leukostasis followed by parenchymal hemorrhage. RESULTS: Bleeding in all patients occurred while their WBCs were decreasing following cytosine-arabinoside chemotherapy, and in the absence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or severe thrombocytopenia. Radiologic and histopathologic findings underscoring possible mechanisms are presented in the article. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations of cell adhesion associated with chemotherapy-induced blast lysis or cellular differentiation are possible factors contributing to this particular sequence (cytosine arabinoside-based chemotherapy, leukostasis, and subsequent hemorrhage). Prophylactic measures for managing this early complication of AML treatment include leukapheresis to reduce the WBC prior to the initiation of chemotherapy. ( info)

4/3387. Conus medullaris hematomyelia associated with an intradural-extramedullary cavernous angioma.

    A unique case of a 50-year-old woman with a conus medullaris hematomyelia associated with a low thoracic intradural-extramedullary cavernous angioma localized 2 cm above is reported. The patient had a 2-month history of progressive paraparesis, hypoesthesia of legs, and bowel and bladder disturbances. The symptoms worsened acutely during the last days before admission. A thoraco-lumbar MRI showed a space-occupying lesion at T10-T11 (vertebral interspace associated with a hematomyelia localized about 2 cm below. A T10-L1 laminectomy was performed and complete removal of both lesions was obtained with microsurgical technique. A non-traumatic hematomyelia should always prompt the suspicion of a spinal AVM or, more rarely, of a cavernous angioma. The possible anatomical and clinical correlations of this unusual association are discussed. ( info)

5/3387. The management of a person with haemophilia who has a fixed flexed hip and intractable pain.

    The clinical picture of a fixed flexed hip associated with pain in a person with haemophilia is suggestive of a haemorrhage in that area. Sonography facilitates differentiation between a haemarthrosis, intraperitoneal haemorrhage, subperiosteal bleed, a bleed into the soft tissue around the hip joint or a psoas haematoma. All these aforementioned causes may result in the same clinical presentation. Two cases are described in which coxhaemarthrosis resulted in a flexion contracture of the joint associated with severe intractable pain. Narcotic drugs failed to alleviate the severe pain. Joint aspiration produced dramatic pain relief and early joint rehabilitation. ( info)

6/3387. Acute torsion of the renal transplant after combined kidney-pancreas transplant.

    BACKGROUND: Surgical complications after combined kidney and pancreas transplantation are a major source of morbidity and mortality. Complications related to the pancreas occur with greater frequency as compared to renal complications. The occurrence in our practice of two cases of renal infarction resulting from torsion about the vascular pedicle led to our retrospective review of similar vascular complications after combined kidney and pancreas transplantation. methods: charts were reviewed retrospectively, and two patients were identified who experienced torsion about the vascular pedicle of an intra-abdominally placed renal allograft. RESULTS: Two patients who had received combined intraperitoneal kidney and pancreas transplantation presented at 16 and 11 months after transplant, respectively, with abdominal pain and decreased urine output. One patient had radiological documentation of abnormal rotation before the graft loss; unfortunately, the significance of this finding was missed. diagnosis was made in both patients at laparotomy, where the kidneys were infarcted secondary to torsion of the vascular pedicle. Both patients underwent transplant nephrectomy and subsequently received a successful second cadaveric renal transplant. CONCLUSIONS: The mechanism of this complication is a result of the intra-abdominal placement of the kidney, length of the vascular pedicle, excess ureteral length, and paucity of adhesions secondary to steroid administration. These factors contribute to abnormal mobility of the kidney. Technical modifications such as minimizing excess ureteral length and nephropexy may help to avoid this complication. ( info)

7/3387. vitrectomy in sickling retinopathy: report of five cases.

    The unique problems encountered in sickle patients include the need to remove peripheral vitreous if perfusing sea fans-which can bleed after vitrectomy-are present at the time of surgery. However, peripheral vitrectomy is riskier than central vitrectomy alone. If visualization of the sea fans is sufficient, it is safer to close the sea fans prior to vitrectomy in order to obviate the need for peripheral vitrectomy; then, only central vitrectomy is performed. When sea fans cannot be closed prior to vitrectomy, peripheral vitreous is removed to allow early photocoagulation of the sea fans before they bleed again. Four case presentations illustrate these principles. vitrectomy relieved severe vitreous traction that complicated retinal detachment in the fifth patient, thereby eliminating the need for a tight encircling structure, which can be poorly tolerated in patients with SC hemoglobin. ( info)

8/3387. Favorable outcome in a fetus with an early-onset extensive cystic hygroma colli and intralesional hemorrhage.

    We present a rare occurrence of an early-onset extensive cystic hygroma colli with intralesional hemorrhage and a favorable outcome. A 23-year-old primigravida woman was referred for management of a left isolated extensive cystic hygroma colli at 22 weeks' gestation. amniocentesis revealed a 46, XY karyotype. Ultrasound-guidance in utero paracentesis was performed weekly or fortnightly from 22 to 36 gestational weeks. The aspirated fluid was chocolate-colored and contained abundant lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and protein. Despite multiple aspirations, the fetal cystic hygroma colli increased in size from 5.2x4.2 cm at 22 weeks' gestation to 9x9.7 cm at 36 weeks' gestation. The woman underwent cesarean section at 36 week's gestation and a-2808 g neonate was born with a 10x6 cm left neck mass, which did not impair spontaneous normal respiration. At the age of 4 days, the neonate underwent simple excision of the cystic hygroma, which was confined to the anterior superficial neck. The neonate was discharged 4 days after operation in good condition. In the present case, in utero paracentesis did not prevent the progressive growth of an early-onset extensive cystic hygroma colli with intralesional hemorrhage. However, lack of extension of the lesion into the surrounding structures and successful postnatal surgery contributed to the favorable outcome of this patient. ( info)

9/3387. Late massive haemoptyses from bronchopulmonary collaterals in infarcted segments following pulmonary embolism.

    Massive, recurrent haemoptyses requiring blood transfusions occurred in a patient who had been diagnosed as having pulmonary thromboembolism 3 months earlier. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case report of this kind, in which massive haemoptyses were proved to be caused by large bronchopulmonary collaterals that had developed in the infarcted lung segments affected by embolism. Selective embolization of the collaterals proved to be therapeutic and life saving. ( info)

10/3387. Importance of basophilia in haematopoietic disorders.

    To the significance of basophilia in haematopoietic disorders, six draw attention to cases have been analyzed. Associated diseases included acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML-M2, M3, M4, and M6), refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) and RAEB in transformation (RAEB-T). Two AML cases (M2, M6) were preceeded by myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). All patients showed greater than 3% basophilia in peripheral blood and bone marrow. basophils were identified successfully by metachromatic staining with toluidine blue in all cases. Three patients (M3, M4, RAEB) presented with lymphadenopathy, suggesting an association with extramedullary involvement. Neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP) activity was significantly reduced in four patients with AML (M2, M3, M4) and RAEB-T. The clinical course was generally unfavourable characterized by short remission duration or disease progression except for the patient with RAEB. Haemorrhage was the main cause of death rather than infection. cytogenetic analysis revealed unique abnormalities involving chromosomes 3q21, 5q31, and 17q11 where the genes for some haematopoietic growth factors or their receptors are located, in addition to t(6;9) and t(15;17). ( info)
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