Cases reported "Hemorrhagic Disorders"

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1/34. cytomegalovirus hemorrhagic gastritis.

    A 36-year-old male with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) presented with intractable nausea and vomiting of 1 week's duration that was not attributable to his medications. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed hemorrhagic and necrotic gastric mucosa but no ulcers were found. Histopathology revealed viral inclusions consistent with cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease of the stomach. The patient received 6 weeks of intravenous ganciclovir with resolution of symptoms and endoscopic findings. Cytomegaloviral involvement of the stomach is rare, even in immunocompromised patients. Characteristic findings on upper endoscopy are punched-out gastric ulcers. This is a rare case of CMV disease of the stomach presenting as hemorrhagic, necrotic gastritis with inflammatory bridging.
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2/34. Successful treatment of an acquired haemorrhagic diathesis due to factor x deficiency with chemotherapy.

    A 70-yr-old woman presented with a severe haemorrhagic diathesis due to an acquired factor x deficiency. A plasma infusion study showed that exogenous factor X was eliminated very effectively from the patient's circulation. A bone marrow biopsy was consistent with plasma cell dyscrasia. Neither an abdominal fat biopsy nor the bone marrow biopsy confirmed an amyloidosis, although clinically no other diagnosis seemed possible. Treatment with intermittent chemotherapy, consisting of vincristine, cytoxan and prednisone, yielded definite clinical and laboratory improvement.
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3/34. Upshaw-Schulman syndrome revisited: a concept of congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Upshaw-Schulman syndrome (USS) is a congenital bleeding disorder characterized by repeated episodes of thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia that respond to infusions of fresh frozen plasma. Inheritance of USS has been thought to be autosomal recessive, because 2 siblings in the same family are often affected but their parents are asymptomatic. Recently, chronic relapsing thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (CR-TTP), reported almost exclusively in adults, was shown to be caused by inherited or acquired deficiency in the activity of a plasma von willebrand factor-cleaving protease (vWF-CPase). The pathogenesis of USS is unknown, and a relationship between CR-YEP and USS has not been reported. We studied 3 unrelated USS patients (ST, SY, and KI) who presented with severe indirect neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. All 3 patients had undetectable vWF-CPase activity, and the inhibitors to vWF-CPase were all negative. In their parents with no clinical symptoms, vWF-CPase activities as a percentage of control samples (mother/father) were 17/20 for ST, 60/45 for SY, and 36/5.6 for KI. Thus, USS and vWF-CPase activity appear to be coinherited as autosomal recessive traits. Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma in 2 patients (ST and SY) resulted in the expected maximal increment of approximately 7% to 8% in vWF-CPase activity at 1 to 4 hours, but the levels became less than 3% within 2 days. After this decrease, platelet counts increased, plateaued in the normal range at 10 to 12 days, and declined thereafter. Thus, the 2 to 3 weeks of therapeutic benefit from plasma infusions will be discussed in relation to the intravascular lifetime of vWF-CPase.
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4/34. Human platelet Galphaq deficiency is associated with decreased Galphaq gene expression in platelets but not neutrophils.

    G-proteins play an important role in platelet signal transduction and regulate responses upon activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). We have previously reported a patient with impaired platelet responses associated with deficiency in platelet Galphaq. To understand the molecular basis for this defect, the cDNA sequence encoding Galphaq (1080 bp) was obtained by reverse-transcription and polymerase chain reaction of platelet rna; the cDNA sequence showed no mutations in the patient. Platelet Galphaq mRNA levels were decreased by >50% compared to normal subjects; platelet Galphai2 mRNA levels were normal. Neutrophil calcium mobilization and elastase secretion, upon activation with several agonists, and neutrophil Galphaq mRNA and protein levels were normal. These studies demonstrate that the patient has a defect in Galphaq gene expression in platelets but not neutrophils, possibly due to defects in transcriptional regulation or mRNA stability, and suggest a hematopoietic-lineage specific defect.
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5/34. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis.

    Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis is a very rare but devastating disorder. diagnosis is sometimes difficult and the clinical course exceedingly variable, as illustrated by this report of a girl, aged 2 years 4 months, with severe iron deficiency anaemia. There was no response to iron therapy and transfusions. Sustained and striking reticulocytosis associated with low haptoglobin mimicked haemolytic anaemia. Positive faecal blood test was documented after repeated testing. There were no pulmonary symptoms. A chest radiograph showed bilateral diffuse alveolar infiltrates. bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed numerous siderophages. High resolution computed tomography of the thorax revealed early pulmonary fibrotic changes. Recurrent reticulocytosis appeared to be a very useful sign of recurrent bleeding episodes.
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6/34. Molecular and functional characterization of a natural homozygous Arg67His mutation in the prothrombin gene of a patient with a severe procoagulant defect contrasting with a mild hemorrhagic phenotype.

    In a patient who presented with a severe coagulation deficiency in plasma contrasting with a very mild hemorrhagic diathesis a homozygous Arg67His mutation was identified in the prothrombin gene. Wild-type (factor IIa [FIIa]-WT) and mutant Arg67His thrombin (FIIa-MT67) had similar amidolytic activity. By contrast, the k(cat)/K(m) value of fibrinopeptide a hydrolysis by FIIa-WT and FIIa-MT67 was equal to 2.1 x 10(7) M(-1)s(-1) and 9 x 10(5) M(-1)s(-1). Decreased activation of protein c (PC) correlated with the 33-fold decreased binding affinity for thrombomodulin (TM; K(d) = 65.3 nM vs 2.1 nM, in FIIa-MT67 and in FIIa-WT, respectively). In contrast, hydrolysis of PC in the absence of TM was normal. The Arg67His mutation had a dramatic effect on the cleavage of protease-activated G protein-coupled receptor 1 (PAR-1) 38-60 peptide (k(cat/)K(m) = 4 x 10(7) M(-1)s(-1) to 1.2 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1)). FIIa-MT67 showed a weaker platelet activating capacity, attributed to a defective PAR-1 interaction, whereas the interaction with glycoprotein Ib was normal. A drastic decrease (up to 500-fold) of the second-order rate constant pertaining to heparin cofactor ii (HCII) interaction, especially in the presence of dermatan sulfate, was found for the FIIa-MT67 compared with FIIa-WT, suggesting a severe impairment of thrombin inhibition by HCII in vivo. Finally, the Arg67His mutation was associated with a 5-fold decrease of prothrombin activation by the factor xa-factor va complex, perhaps through impairment of the prothrombin-factor va interaction. These experiments show that the Arg67His substitution affects drastically both the procoagulant and the anticoagulant functions of thrombin as well as its inhibition by HCII. The mild hemorrhagic phenotype might be explained by abnormalities that ultimately counterbalance each other.
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7/34. Two naturally occurring mutations on FVII gene (S363I-W364C) altering intrinsic catalytic activity.

    Factor VII (FVII) requires the cleavage of an internal peptide bond and the association with tissue factor (TF) to attain its fully active FVIIa conformation. This event alone leaves FVIIa in a zymogen-like state of relatively low specific activity. The TF-induced allosteric enhancement of FVIIa's activity contributes to the procoagulant activity of the complex. We have characterized two naturally occurring mutations (S363I - W364C) on FVII gene. Both homozygous patients for each mutation have a normal FVII: Ag level associated to an undetectable FVII coagulant activity. The patient carrying the allele 364C had a more severe hemorrhagic diathesis than the S363I mutant. To understand the mechanism of these deficiency, in vitro expression analysis with further biochemical characterization of recombinant proteins of both mutants FVII-363I, FVII-364C and wild type (WTFVII) FVII constructs were done. The results recapitulated the patients' plasma data with normal Ag level and no detectable coagulant activity. The D-F-Pip-R-pNA and CH(3)SO(2)-D-CHA-A-But-R chromogenic substrates were used to evaluate the amidolytic activity of WT and mutant FVII in presence and absence of recombinant tissue factor (rTF). Binding of FVII to rTF by a solid phase binding assay was done using recombinant human rTF. The results of amidolytic assays showed that rTF enhances 28 fold the value of the specificity of constant (kcat/K(m)) in WT but no activity was detectable in either mutant constructs under any condition. The equilibrium dissociation constant of rTF-FVIIa interaction showed Kd equal to 4.4 /- 0.2nM, 4.9 /- 0.5nM and 6 /- 0.9 of WT, 363I and 364C FVII forms, respectively. The K(d) values of the non activated forms were equal to 24.7 /- 3.3, 24.4 /- 3.1 and 20.6 /- 4nM, respectively. These data demonstrate that, compared to the WT form, FVII-363I and FVII-364C have no significant affinity change for TF and that the detrimental effect of these two mutations is attributable to the loss of an efficient catalytic machinery in the FVII molecule causing a severe deficiency of coagulant activities.
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ranking = 2
keywords = deficiency
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8/34. The role of primary prophylactic factor replacement therapy in children with severe factor x deficiency.

    Severe factor X (FX) deficiency is one of the severest inherited coagulation disorders. Clinical manifestations include umbilical cord, mucosal, joint and central nervous system bleeding. Four Irish children with severe FX deficiency presented with umbilical cord bleeding. One developed an intraperitoneal haemorrhage and another an intracranial bleed. Prophylaxis, using intermediate purity factor ix concentrate, was commenced within the first month of life, necessitating the insertion of central venous access devices in two of the children. All children have normal joint function, suggesting that prophylaxis commenced early in life reduces the incidence of arthropathy and improves quality of life.
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9/34. Simultaneous deep venous thrombosis and acquired factor viii inhibitor.

    Acquired hemophilia a is a life-threatening immune-mediated hemorrhagic disorder that is most often found in individuals older than 50 who present with an unexplained activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) prolongation and clinically significant bleeding. The prolonged aPTT associated with acquired hemophilia a reflects factor viii activity deficiency due to neutralizing or clearing autoantibodies. Deep venous thrombosis, in contrast, is a veno-occlusive disorder associated with several distinct hypercoagulable states that can result in significant morbidity and mortality due to pulmonary embolism, thrombus extension, and the post-thrombotic syndrome. A prolonged aPTT in the setting of thrombosis may reflect the presence of a lupus anticoagulant. In the absence of accurate diagnosis and the immediate institution of specific therapy, both disorders can be fatal. Three cases of acquired factor viii inhibitors that included a prolonged aPTT, bleeding, and duplex ultrasound evidence of deep venous thrombosis are presented. The diagnostic and therapeutic challenges posed by these cases as well as a proposed mechanism by which pathologic thrombosis can develop in a patient with a life-threatening bleeding disorder are discussed.
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10/34. Lupus anticoagulant associated with transient severe factor x deficiency: a report of two patients presenting with major bleeding complications.

    Acquired factor X (FX) deficiency is rare, but has been reported in diverse disease states, including systemic amyloidosis and respiratory infections. FX deficiency associated with lupus anticoagulant (LA) and a bleeding diathesis has not been previously reported. We report two patients both of whom presented with a severe bleeding diathesis after a preceding respiratory infection due to isolated FX deficiency associated with a LA. The FX deficiency and LA were transient. We conclude that patients with LA may rarely present with severe acquired FX deficiency. This may be another mechanism whereby patients with antiphospholipid antibodies present with bleeding complications.
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