Cases reported "Hemosiderosis"

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1/11. cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal IgG bands in patients with spinal arteriovenous malformation and structural central nervous system lesions.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and characteristics of patients with structural central nervous system (CNS) lesions and cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal IgG bands. DESIGN: A retrospective study. METHOD: The medical records of patients with cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal IgG bands were evaluated for the presence of structural CNS lesions, their location and cause, and for clinical characteristics. SETTING: cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal IgG bands were examined in the Neuroimmunology Laboratory, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, israel. patients: Two hundred seventy of 570 patients with positive cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal IgG bands were available for analysis. Twenty patients had structural CNS lesions. RESULTS: Twenty (7.5%) of the 270 patients had structural CNS lesions: 3 patients had spinal arteriovenous malformation; 5 patients had tumors; 9 patients had compressive cervical myelopathy. Traumatic leukomalacia, arnold-chiari malformation type 1, and CNS hemosiderosis were present in 1 patient each. In 2 patients (1 patient with recurrent meningioma and 1 patient with posttraumatic encephalomalacia) the presence of a structural CNS lesion was followed by the development of multiple sclerosis. In all 3 patients with spinal arteriovenous malformation, oligoclonal IgG identification prolonged the time to diagnosis and therapy, which varied from a few weeks to 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: Structural CNS lesions, responsible for the neurological disorder, were present in 20 patients (7.5%) with cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal IgG bands. The mechanism underlying oligoclonal IgG presence in spinal arteriovenous malformation and the coexistence of multiple sclerosis and structural CNS lesions is unknown, but may be related to recurrent tissue damage with repeated presentation of CNS antigens to the immune system.
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2/11. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: pathogenetic heterogeneity and therapeutic approaches.

    OBJECTIVE: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare chronic progressive disorder caused by chronic subarachnoid hemorrhage. We present four patients with superficial siderosis of the CNS to describe the characteristic symptoms, and to discuss the pathogenetic heterogeneity and possible new therapeutic approaches. RESULTS: The causes of chronic subarachnoid bleeding in superficial siderosis were different. In two patients surgical treatment of ependymoma or cerebral cavernomas were the underlying diseases. No cause was detected in one patient. For the first time, we present one patient with vasculitis of the central nervous system associated with systemic hemochromatosis in superficial siderosis. Therapeutic approaches included exstirpation of cavernomas as the source of chronic bleeding in one patient, immunosuppressive therapy and venupunctures in the patient with vasculitis and hemochromatosis, and symptomatic treatment with chelating agents and antioxidants. The patients remained clinically stable for the follow-up period of up to 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our cases underline the pathogenetic heterogeneity of superficial siderosis and favor the early diagnosis for prompt initiation of therapy. Besides treatment of the underlying condition, antioxidants and radical scavengers may be effective in halting the progression of the disease.
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3/11. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs. Chronic recurrent subarachnoidal hemorrhage with bleeding into the cerebrospinal fluid is the cause of deposition of hemosiderin in leptomeningeal and subpial tissue, cranial nerves, and spinal cord. Removing the cause of bleeding can prevent irreversible damage to these structures. Because this is the only effective treatment, an early diagnosis is crucial. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENT: A 72-year-old woman with superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system that developed when she was age 39. methods: Neurologic and imaging diagnostic examinations and longitudinal evaluation of cochleovestibular features were performed. neurosurgery was not performed. RESULTS: Progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and severe vestibular hyporeflexia developed within 15 years, which can be attributed to lesions in the cochleovestibular system. Additional pathology of the central nervous system developed later. CONCLUSION: The patient demonstrated cochlear and vestibular findings that are typical of this pathologic condition. It is the first documented case with extensive serial audiometry used to precisely outline the degree of hearing deterioration during the course of the disease.
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4/11. central nervous system superficial siderosis following spinal surgery.

    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system is a rare progressive disease associated with hemosiderin deposition on the leptomeninges of the neuraxis. In addition to tumors and vascular lesions, dural sleeve pseudomeningoceles caused by brachial plexus avulsion injury may be the bleeding source in this disease. The authors describe a patient who underwent anterior cervical spine surgery for spinal cord compression due to the ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament. The operation was complicated by a dural tear and subsequent psedomeningocele formation. Nine years later, this patient developed superficial siderosis. The possible mechanisms involved in the development of superficial siderosis in this patient will be discussed.
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5/11. cochlear implantation in superficial siderosis.

    Superficial siderosis (SS) of the central nervous system has been thought to be a rare condition that generates progressive hearing loss, ataxia, pyramidal signs, and dementia. The main cause of hearing loss by SS is thought to be neuronal. Because there is no histopathologic report of the human temporal bone in SS, there is a debate about the possibility of cochlear involvement. We present a 25-year-old man who was investigated for bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss and vestibular failure after head trauma. On brain MRI, SS of the central nervous system was detected. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) showed no response on both sides. However, integrity of the eighth nerve was proved by the electrical ABR test on the right side and the patient benefited significantly from cochlear implantation. The sensorineural hearing loss in SS seems to be related to cochlear damage as well as neuronal damage. So, cochlear implantation would be a hearing rehabilitation modality for the sensorineural hearing loss caused by SS.
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6/11. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system. A 37-year follow-up of a case and review of the literature.

    The course of a patient suffering from superficial siderosis of the central nervous system for 37 years is presented and diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are evaluated. The syndrome is clinically defined by slowly progressing deafness, cerebellar ataxia, myelopathy and neuropsychological deficits in combination with recurrent xanthochromia of the cerebrospinal fluid with siderophages. The diagnosis may be confirmed by computed tomography, which shows degeneration of the cerebellar vermis, and by magnetic resonance imaging, demonstrating iron deposits on the surface of brain, brain stem and spinal cord. Therapy should seek to identify and remove the source of bleeding, since pharmacotherapy with iron-depleting drugs is of limited effectiveness.
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7/11. An autopsy case of idiopathic superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system: a microscopic and immunohistochemical study.

    The brain of a patient with idiopathic superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system was examined by light and electron microscopy. A histopathological study revealed massive, symmetrically situated necrosis in the temporal and insular lobes, which has not been described in previous reports. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed ovoid bodies in the astroglia. Electron microscopy showed that these bodies were composed of fine granules, 50-60 A in diameter, and electron-dense amorphous material. Based on detailed histopathological and ultrastructural findings, the mechanism of ovoid body formation is discussed.
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8/11. Hereditary ceruloplasmin deficiency with hemosiderosis: a clinicopathological study of a Japanese family.

    A hereditary ceruloplasmin deficiency associated with severe iron deposition in visceral organ and brain tissues found on histopathological examination at autopsy is discussed. Three siblings of consanguineous Japanese parents were studied. Their clinical symptoms were progressive dementia, extrapyramidal disorders, cerebellar ataxia, and diabetes mellitus, all of which appeared when they were between 30 and 50 years old. All had serum ceruloplasmin deficiencies and increased serum ferritin concentrations. The dentate nucleus, thalamus, putamen, caudate nucleus, and liver of each one showed low signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Examination of the central nervous system revealed severe destruction of the basal ganglia and dentate nucleus, with considerable iron deposition in neuronal and glial cells, whereas the cerebral cortex showed mild iron deposition in glial cells without neuronal involvement. An electron microscopic study with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis showed iron depositions in the hepatocytes, of both the neural and glial cells of the brain. We consider this a new disease entity because of the primary ceruloplasmin deficiency.
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9/11. Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system.

    Superficial hemosiderosis (SH) of the CNS is a rare disease caused by repeated subarachnoid hemorrhage, with progressive superficial siderosis of the CNS. We report a patient with SH whose clinical picture was marked by progressive gait ataxia, hearing loss, dysarthria, and recurrent episodes of hemifacial spasm. iron and ferritin levels in the CSF were significantly higher than in a control group of patients. Six month's treatment with the iron-chelating agent trientine dihydrochloride led to clinical improvement, with a concomitant reduction of CSF iron level. We suggest that, in addition to magnetic resonance imaging findings, CSF levels of iron and ferritin should be used as diagnostic criteria for SH, as well as to estimate the efficacy of iron chelation treatment.
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ranking = 0.8
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10/11. Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. A case report.

    A case of idiopathic superficial hemosiderosis (SH) of the central nervous system and a review of the literature are presented. The patient suffered from progressive cerebellar ataxia, hearing loss, anosmia, spastic paraparesis, but no mental deterioration. The diagnosis was made with brain and spinal MRI, that showed in T2 weighted images superficial hypointensity of spinal cord, medulla oblungata, pons, mesencephalon, cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres, images that are considered pathognomonic of SH. Repeated spinal fluid examinations were negative, suggesting that evidence of overt subarachnoidal bleeding is not essential in the diagnosis. In patients with SH of unknown etiology no valid therapy is yet available.
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