Cases reported "Hepatic Encephalopathy"

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11/468. Long-term extracorporeal bilirubin elimination: A case report on cascade resin plasmaperfusion.

    Acute hepatic failure develops as a disease entity of rather diverse origin. With disease progression, toxic bilirubin levels may cause severe complications which include AV-nodal blockage, cardiac arrhythmia, impaired consciousness, generalized seizures, and status epilepticus. Treatment choices to prevent clinical deterioration comprise of costly and limited available orthotopic liver transplantation, utilization of extracorporeal bioartificial liver support devices and haemoperfusion/plasmaperfusion treatment with activated charcoal/anion exchange filters. Here, we present a patient with acute drug-induced cholestatic hepatitis. Excessively elevated bilirubin levels were accompanied by cardiac and cerebral complications. Extracorporeal resin perfusion treatment (Plasorba, BR-350) was successfully performed over a 50-day period without activation of the coagulation system or side effects. bilirubin levels were lowered to a minimum of 225 micromol/l, with concurrent clinical improvement. In conclusion, extracorporeal anion exchange plasmaperfusion may be a viable long-term treatment for hyperbilirubinaemic side effects in overt cholestatic hepatitis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = hepatitis, b
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12/468. Three cases of severe subfulminant hepatitis in heart-transplanted patients after nosocomial transmission of a mutant hepatitis b virus.

    Fulminant and severe viral hepatitis are frequently associated with mutant hepatitis b virus (HBV) strains. In this study, the genetic background of a viral strain causing severe subfulminant outcome in heart-transplanted patients was studied and compared with viral hepatitis B strains that were not linked to severe liver disease in the same setting. A total of 46 patients infected nosocomially with HBV genotype A were studied. Five different viral strains were detected, infecting 3, 9, 5, 24, and 5 patients, respectively. Only one viral strain was found to be associated with the subfulminant outcome and 3 patient deaths as a consequence of severe liver disease. The remaining 43 patients with posttransplantation HBV infection did not show this fatal outcome. Instead, symptoms of hepatitis were generally mild or clinically undiagnosed. Comparison of this virus genome with the four other strains showed an accumulation of mutations in the basic core promoter, a region that influences viral replication, but also in hepatitis B X protein (HBX) (7 mutant motifs), core (10 mutant motifs), the preS1 region (5 mutant motifs), and the HBpolymerase open reading frame (17 motifs). Some of these variations, such as those in the core region, were located on the tip of the protruding spike of the viral capsid (codons 60 to 90), also known in part as an important HLA class II-restricted epitope region. These mutations might therefore influence the immune-mediated response. The viral strain causing subfulminant hepatitis was, in addition, the only strain with a preCore stop codon mutation and, thus, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) expression was never observed. The combination of these specific viral factors is thought to be responsible for the fatal outcome in these immune-suppressed heart-transplant recipients.
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ranking = 7.4866965372135
keywords = hepatitis, b
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13/468. Polymorphic light eruption occurring solely on an area of naevoid telangiectasia.

    We report the case of a 60-year-old woman presenting with polymorphic light eruption occurring solely on an area of acquired naevoid telangiectasia. We have hypothesized that increased blood flow in the telangiectatic skin may reduce the threshold for expression of photosensitivity by permitting enhanced inflammatory cell trafficking to the overlying tissue.
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ranking = 0.00016893286078039
keywords = b
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14/468. Possible association between serum gb virus c rna level and disease activity in fulminant hepatitis type G.

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Whether gb virus c causes serious liver diseases remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is an etiological relationship between gb virus c and fulminant hepatitis. methods: The level of gb virus c rna in the sera of three patients with fulminant hepatitis was quantitatively determined using the newly developed real-time detection polymerase chain reaction method, which is based on Taq Man chemistry. The NS 3 region of the viral genome isolated from the sera was sequenced at several time points to confirm whether the same virus was responsible for fulminant hepatitis during the patients' clinical courses. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the PCR was comparable to that of nested PCR and a linear relationship between rna copy number and threshold cycle was observed for 10(1) and 10(6) rna copies/ml (r = 0.99). The serum level of gb virus c rna closely paralleled that of ALT in all patients. sequence analysis of the NS3 region isolated from the patients' sera revealed that the same gb virus c strain infected the patients during their entire clinical courses, despite plasma exchange therapy. CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that gb virus c may be etiologically associated with fulminant hepatic failure, and is not merely an inactive bystander introduced by therapeutic plasma exchange.
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ranking = 3.494805314531
keywords = hepatitis, b
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15/468. Reversibility of hyperintense globus pallidus on T 1-weighted MRI follow- ing surgery for a portosystemic shunt in an 8-year-old girl.

    An 8-year-old Japanese girl with a portosystemic shunt had shown hyperammonaemia since she was 3 years of age. MRI of her brain showed bilateral hyperintense globus pallidus. A portosystemic shunt was evident on US and angiography. She underwent surgical banding of the shunt, after which the lesion and clinical symptoms disappeared.
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ranking = 0.0010135971646823
keywords = b
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16/468. Control of solitary gastric fundal varices and portosystemic encephalopathy accompanying liver cirrhosis by balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO): a case report.

    In a patient with liver cirrhosis complicated by solitary gastric fundal varices and portosystemic encephalopathy, Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) of the varices was performed. The gastric varices were decreased in size 2 weeks after treatment and had not recurred after 1 year. B-RTO successfully occluded the portosystemic shunt (gastrorenal shunt). Accordingly, the patient's blood ammonia levels, total bile acid level, and 15 min retention rate of indocyanine green decreased, and his hepatic encephalopathy improved. However, since consecutive increase in blood flow through the portal collateral vessels except for gastrorenal shunt vessel at 6 months and 1 year after B-RTO was noted, further careful follow-up may be required.
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ranking = 0.0015203957470235
keywords = b
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17/468. hepatitis b virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody (anti-HBs) forming immune complexes in fulminant hepatitis.

    This paper reports an unusual pattern of serological HBV markers and the presence of HBsAg/anti-HBs immune complexes in serum samples from two patients with fulminant hepatitis from the Brazilian Western Amazon Basin. The diagnosis was made by both serologic tests and demonstration of antigen/antibody complexes by transmission electron microscopy. Concurrent Delta virus superinfection is also discussed.
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ranking = 2.4958189116957
keywords = hepatitis, b
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18/468. Fulminant adenovirus hepatitis following unrelated bone marrow transplantation: failure of intravenous ribavirin therapy.

    Fulminant hepatic failure due to adenovirus infection is a rare complication following stem cell transplantation. We report this complication in an unrelated bone marrow transplant recipient 30 weeks post-transplant. Treatment with intravenous ribavirin was started within 36 h of admission, but he succumbed to unusually fulminant hepatic failure. Adenovirus type 2 was isolated from stool surveillance samples and from post-mortem liver samples. Adenovirus dna was detected by PCR in blood and sputum samples at admission and was identified in post-mortem liver tissue by electron microscopy. Implications of the failure of ribavirin therapy are discussed.
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ranking = 1.9974660070883
keywords = hepatitis, b
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19/468. Fatal liver failure associated with valproate therapy in a patient with Friedreich's disease: review of valproate hepatotoxicity in adults.

    PURPOSE: Valproate (VPA)-associated hepatotoxicity is usually considered a problem of young children with polytherapy, mental retardation, and underlying metabolic defects. methods: An adult patient with fatal liver failure during treatment with VPA is presented, and a review of the literature on other adult patients is given. RESULTS: A 29-year-old female patient with Friedreich's ataxia and partial seizures with acute liver failure during VPA treatment is reported. The first symptoms of liver failure (i.e., apathy during febrile upper airway infection) occurred 2 months after starting VPA therapy. VPA was discontinued 10 days later on hospital admission, when she had hepatic encephalopathy and severe bleeding diathesis. The patient died of severe liver failure and bronchopneumonia after 4 weeks of supportive treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-six adult patients (>17 years) with VPA-associated fatal hepatotoxicity have been reported in the literature. Of the 26 adult patients, three were receiving VPA monotherapy. The age ranged between 17 and 62 years. The duration of VPA treatment before the first symptom varied between 7 days and 6 years. Twelve of the 26 affected adults had no underlying disease or a clearly nonmetabolic and non-hepatic disease. Therefore VPA-associated severe side effects also must be considered in adult patients without any evidence of a metabolic defect or underlying neurologic disease.
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ranking = 0.0010135971646823
keywords = b
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20/468. common bile duct blood clot: an unusual cause of ductal filling defects for calculi.

    We report a case of obstructive jaundice caused by a blood clot in the common bile duct in a 75-year-old man with cirrhosis. Five years prior to his admission, he had undergone a left hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma. At the present admission, he appeared icteric, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography revealed filling defects in the common bile duct. Choledochotomy was therefore performed for possible common duct stones, and exploration of the duct showed blood clot casts filling the duct. The casts were easily removed, and the patient's postoperative course was uneventful. However, he developed ascites and jaundice 1 month later and died of liver failure approximately 3 months after undergoing the choledochotomy. autopsy revealed hemorrhagic necrosis in the proximal intrahepatic duct of the posterior segment, which was considered to be the cause of the observed hemobilia, as well as the blood clot in the common bile duct at surgery. We report this rare case and discuss the cause of hemobilia.
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ranking = 0.0017737950381941
keywords = b
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