Cases reported "Hepatitis, Viral, Human"

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1/61. Fulminant herpes hepatitis in a healthy adult: a treatable disorder?

    Hepatitis due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a potentially fatal disorder that is often not considered in the differential diagnosis of acute hepatitis. This disease occurs most often in patients with impaired immunity and is very uncommon in healthy patients. HSV hepatitis presents with a wide clinical spectrum, and the clinical diagnosis is difficult. We describe a case of disseminated herpes virus infection with fulminant hepatitis mimicking an acute human immunodeficiency virus infection in a 33-year-old healthy man. Preliminary studies suggest that early treatment of HSV hepatitis with acyclovir may be beneficial in these patients. A high index of suspicion and the availability of early diagnostic tools, such as HSV dna detection, may dramatically improve the clinical outcome of severe HSV hepatitis.
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keywords = herpes
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2/61. herpes simplex hepatitis in pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature.

    Fulminant hepatic dysfunction in the third trimester of pregnancy accompanied by fever may result from disseminated herpes simplex virus. Since 1969, 24 cases of herpes simplex hepatitis, including the current case, have been reported. Mucocutaneous lesions are present in only half of cases; therefore, suspicion for diagnosis of this disease is low. Twenty-five percent of cases were not diagnosed until autopsy. Maternal and perinatal mortality are high, approaching 39 percent for both mother and fetus. Early recognition with initiation of antiviral therapy appears to be most important in maximizing survival.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = herpes
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3/61. Acute liver failure in pregnancy. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Liver disease in pregnancy can be grossly divided into those disorders coincidentally occurring during the pregnant state and hepatic diseases limited to pregnancy. Numerous infectious agents can result in acute hepatitis and include not only the hepatitis viruses--A, B, C and E--but herpesvirus and cytomegalovirus as well. Coxsackie B viruses can cause several clinical presentations, ranging from asymptomatic to mild febrile illness to myocarditis and meningitis. Rarely has coxsackievirus infection been associated with fulminant hepatic failure. CASE: A Coxsackie B virus infection resulted in acute liver failure in a gravid woman. The patient was managed expectantly, with resolution of the liver disease and delivery five weeks after discharge. CONCLUSION: The onset of hepatic disease is insidious, with only vague symptoms or minor complaints often heralding the progression to liver failure. A careful history, physical examination and appropriate diagnostic tests can help determine the etiology of hepatic disease and help decide whether expectant management of the gravid patient or immediate delivery is appropriate.
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ranking = 0.18849016827653
keywords = herpes, herpesvirus
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4/61. Neonatal syncytial giant cell hepatitis with paramyxoviral-like inclusions.

    Syncytial giant cell hepatitis in the neonatal period has been associated with many different etiologic agents and may present initially as cholestasis. Infectious causes are most common and include: (1 ) generalized bacterial sepsis, (2) viral agents, (3) toxoplasmosis, (4) syphilis, (5) listeriosis, and (6) tuberculosis. Viral hepatitis may be due to cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, herpes simplex, HHV-6, varicella, coxsackievirus, echovirus, reovirus 3, parvovirus B19, hiv, enteroviruses, paramyxovirus, and hepatitis a, B, or C (rare). Giant cell hepatitis may result in fulminant liver failure with massive hepatocyte necrosis and severe liver dysfunction leading to death, resolution with severely compromised liver function, or liver transplantation. The authors report a 6-week-old male who had an unremarkable perinatal period, became jaundiced after developing diarrhea, and subsequently developed liver dysfunction with massively increased liver enzymes and a coagulopathy. Open wedge and core liver biopsies were performed to determine if the patient should be listed for liver transplantation. Giant cell hepatitis with a significant mixed lymphocytic and neutrophilic infiltrate was present on both the wedge and core biopsies. The residual 60% of hepatocytes had ballooning degeneration and many possessed pyknotic nuclei. The hepatocytes were arranged in a pseudoacinar pattern. Electron microscopy showed paramyxoviral-like inclusions in the giant cells, characterized as large inclusions with fine filamentous, beaded substructures (18-20 nm). paramyxoviridae are nonsegmented, negative-sense, single-stranded rna viruses. This family is divided into the paramyxovirinae subfamily containing respirovirus (sendai virus, parainfluenza virus type 3), rubulavirus (mumps, parainfluenza virus type 2), and morbillivirus genera (measles); and pneumovirinae subfamily (pneumovirus genus [respiratory syncytial virus]). Supportive care to determine if hepatic function resolves following the viral episode, liver transplantation with fulminant liver failure, and ongoing evaluation in those who recover to assess chronic liver disease are necessary. Ultrastructural evaluation may unmask the etiologic agent for hepatitis and direct therapy.
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ranking = 0.26578354603718
keywords = herpes, varicella
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5/61. adult-onset herpes simplex virus hepatitis with diffuse myofibroblastic transformation of hepatic stellate cells (Ito cells) in non-necrotic areas.

    The myofibroblastic transformation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC; also known as Ito cells) usually occurs following necrosis of adjacent liver cells. No report has previously found that such a transformation occurs in herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis. We present an autopsy case of HSV hepatitis with myofibroblastic transformation of HSC that is different from the usual transformation of HSC. The patient was a 66-year-old woman who had received various therapies for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. An autopsy revealed submassive hepatic necrosis with hemorrhage due to HSV hepatitis. HSV infection was confirmed by dna in situ hybridization in liver tissue. Immunohistochemical staining for alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA) showed a strong positive reaction in almost all of the HSC in non-necrotic areas. However, in necrotic areas, the HSC were completely negative for ASMA. These findings indicate that not only liver cells but also HSC can become necrotic in HSV hepatitis. In contrast, in non-necrotic areas, almost all of the HSC showed active transformation to myofibroblasts.
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ranking = 0.83333333333333
keywords = herpes
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6/61. Varicella infection in a renal transplant recipient associated with abdominal pain, hepatitis, and glomerulonephritis.

    A 36-year-old renal transplant patient developed 9 years after a successful transplantation a fatal secondary varicella infection. The disseminated varicella infection was associated with hepatitis with liver necrosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis and glomerulonephritis. To our knowledge this is the first description of glomerulonephritis associated with varicella infection in a renal transplanted patient. The autopsy showed morphologically a mesangial glomerulonephritis with minor proliferative activity and extensive deposits by electronmicroscopy, mainly in the mesangium. The ongoing immunosuppression may have modified the mesangial cell response to the deposition of immune complexes.
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ranking = 0.29735063811153
keywords = varicella
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7/61. mumps-like syndrome owing to parvovirus B19: a brief report.

    Major manifestations of acute parvovirus B19 infection are usually erythema infectiosum, transient aplastic crisis and polyarthropathy. We report a case suspected to have mumps-meningo-encephalitis who had IgM and IgG antibodies positive for parvovirus B19.
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ranking = 0.0080216636437427
keywords = encephalitis
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8/61. herpes simplex hepatitis before and after acyclovir treatment. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization study.

    A healthy 20-year-old woman developed herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis. The diagnosis was made by needle biopsy of the liver, and the patient was intravenously treated with acyclovir for 15 consecutive days (total dose, 21 g). The liver biopsy specimen and liver tissue obtained at autopsy were processed for immunoperoxidase staining with rabbit anti-HSV and for dna-dna in situ hybridization. The liver biopsy tissue revealed massive necrosis of hepatocytes, which were strongly positive for HSV with both immunoperoxidase and in situ hybridization methods. The liver tissue obtained at autopsy showed regenerative nodules of hepatocytes, surrounded by connective tissue stroma. Within the connective tissue there were completely necrotic hepatocytes, which were positive for HSV with the immunoperoxidase method but almost completely negative with the in situ hybridization method, except for a very few HSV dna-positive hepatocytic nuclei. It was concluded that immunoperoxidase staining with anti-HSV is a sensitive method with which to detect ongoing and previous HSV infection, whereas the in situ hybridization method is specific for HSV-dna from viable HSV.
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ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = herpes
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9/61. Vesicular and pustular eruption related to cytomegalovirus in an immunocompetent patient.

    cytomegalovirus (CMV), a member of the herpesviridae family, can cause various dermatologic and systemic disorders especially in immunosuppressed subjects. However, immunocompetent individuals rarely present with cutaneous eruptions related to CMV. We describe an immunocompetent patient who developed a skin eruption and mild hepatitis related to CMV.
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ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = herpes
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10/61. Fulminant herpes hepatitis in an immunocompetent pregnant woman: CT imaging features.

    Fulminant hepatitis due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) is rare in immunocompetent adults. Most reported cases have clearly established pregnancy as a condition that can predispose to disseminated HSV infection. We report a case of a 25-year-old previously healthy pregnant woman who presented with fatigue, fever, and anicteric hepatitis. Triphasic contrast-enhanced computed tomography demonstrated a miliary pattern of multiple, hypovascular, subcentimeter lesions scattered throughout the liver. Familiarity with the clinical findings and computed tomographic appearance may prompt early recognition of fulminant HSV hepatitis and allow differentiation from other hepatic disease during pregnancy.
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ranking = 0.83333333333333
keywords = herpes
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