Cases reported "Hepatitis, Viral, Human"

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11/61. herpes simplex hepatitis in adults: a search for muco-cutaneous clues.

    herpes simplex hepatitis is a treatable cause of acute hepatitis with a high mortality (41% to 79%). We present 4 adult patients who died of herpes simplex hepatitis and review another 70 patients (including pregnant women) from the literature to illustrate that herpes simplex hepatitis was only considered in the differential diagnosis in 26% to 33% of patients even though muco-cutaneous involvement was present in at least 70% of these patients. The presence of muco-cutaneous lesions in a patient with clinical symptoms and biochemical findings of acute hepatitis should raise the suspicion of herpes simplex hepatitis. Prompt treatment with acyclovir can be initiated within hours of admission in an attempt to prevent further hepatocellular damage in this potentially life-threatening infection.
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ranking = 1
keywords = herpes
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12/61. Fatal hepatic failure secondary to acute herpes simplex virus infection.

    Acute hepatitis with severe hepatic failure is an uncommon manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. It has been described in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients and is usually fatal. Due to the better survival after acyclovir treatment in a few reported cases, physicians need to be aware of the characteristic clinical abnormalities so that early diagnosis and treatment can be implemented. The authors describe an adolescent diagnosed with hodgkin disease who developed fatal hepatic failure secondary to acute HSV. Typical signs and symptoms in patients at risk, when there is no other obvious cause of fulminant hepatitis, should lead to early empirical treatment with acyclovir.
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ranking = 1.6666666666667
keywords = herpes
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13/61. Fulminant hepatitis due to varicella zoster virus in a girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission: report of a case and review.

    The authors describe a 4-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission who developed fulminant hepatic failure due to varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Diagnosing VZV visceral infection in immunocompromised patients is often difficult due to atypical clinical presentation with few or no skin lesions and severe abdominal or back pain. Prompt initiation of empirical treatment with acyclovir and VZV immunoglobulin pending results of the serum polymerase chain reaction for VZV is warranted in this clinical setting.
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ranking = 1.4766110314392
keywords = varicella, varicella zoster, zoster
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14/61. Human herpesvirus 8 infection in hemodialysis patients.

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) seroprevalence in Greek hemodialysis patients. Patterns of change in HHV-8 serostatus (seroconversions and seroreversions) over time were also evaluated. methods: serum samples obtained from a cohort of 485 Greek hemodialysis patients were tested for antibodies to HHV-8 by whole virus lysate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reactive samples were confirmed by means of the orf-73 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HHV-8 seroprevalence at study entry and the incidence of seroreversions and seroconversions per 100 person-years were estimated. RESULTS: The prevalence of HHV-8 antibodies in Greek hemodialysis patients at enrollment was 7.2%. No univariate associations were established between HHV-8 serostatus and patients' characteristics. Incidences of seroreversions and seroconversions were 16.4/100 person-years (95% confidence interval, 7.1 to 32.3) and 0.28/100 person-years (95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 1.02), respectively. patients 50 years and younger had an increased probability for seroreversion to HHV-8 antibodies than patients older than 50 years (log-rank test, P = 0.018). CONCLUSION: We observed a fair number of seroreversions and a low incidence of seroconversion to HHV-8 infection in hemodialysis patients in greece. Our data provide indirect evidence that HHV-8 transmission in the hemodialysis setting is uncommon.
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ranking = 1.8849016827653
keywords = herpes, herpesvirus
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15/61. fatal outcome of herpes simplex virus type 1-induced necrotic hepatitis in a neonate.

    In neonates, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can lead to severe diseases associated with high mortality. We report a 6-day-old girl who developed clinical signs of fulminant hepatic failure accompanied by infectious-toxic shock and disseminated coagulopathy secondary to HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The diagnosis was performed postmortem by demonstration of HSV-1 dna in liver tissue as well as by retrospective detection of HSV-specific antibodies.
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ranking = 1.6666666666667
keywords = herpes
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16/61. Fulminant, acyclovir-resistant, herpes simplex virus type 2 hepatitis in an immunocompetent woman.

    We report an immunocompetent woman with multisystem organ failure following herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) hepatitis. After she initially responded to intravenous acyclovir, she was switched to oral valacyclovir. She developed respiratory failure and opportunistic infections and died. autopsy confirmed disseminated HSV infection, and lung tissue grew acyclovir-resistant HSV-2.
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ranking = 1.6666666666667
keywords = herpes
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17/61. Electron microscopy of herpes simplex hepatitis with hepatocyte pulmonary embolization in kwashiorkor.

    We report a case of herpes simplex hepatitis in a child with edematous malnutrition. Electron microscopy showed virus in parenchymal cells, with pulmonary embolization of necrotic, infected hepatic cell fragments. Systemic dissemination of herpes simplex may be related both to the profound immunoincompetence associated with kwashiorkor and to a reduction in the circulating and fixed polyanions that normally inhibit viral attachment to cells.
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ranking = 2
keywords = herpes
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18/61. Human herpesvirus-6 hepatitis associated with cyclosporine-A encephalitis after bone marrow transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia.

    A 31-year-old man referred to our hospital for treatment of his chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the first chronic phase by bone marrow transplantation. We pretreated him with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was carried out. On day 31, the engraftment was confirmed and on day 52, acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) was observed. On day 189, he lost consciousness due to cyclosporine A-induced leukoencephalopathy and 375 mg cyclosporine A was changed to 100 mg prednisolone. On day 199, liver dysfunction (AST 410 IU/L, ALT 557 IU/L, gammaGTP 385 IU/L, ALP 363 IU/L, D-Bil 0.3 mg/dl) developed and a liver biopsy was performed. PCR analysis of dna from the liver biopsy specimen was positive for HHV-6 and immunostaining using anti-HHV-6 and anti-HHV-6b antibodies showed positive staining in the cytosol of hepatocytes. No other viruses were found to induce hepatitis. From these results, he was diagnosed as having HHV-6 hepatitis and it was successfully treated with gancyclovir (GCV) administration.
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ranking = 1.5720946553622
keywords = herpes, herpesvirus, encephalitis
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19/61. A novel mutation of varicella-zoster virus associated to fatal hepatitis.

    BACKGROUND: Lethal varicella in immunocompetent hosts is rare and its pathogenesis is largely unknown. The discovery of glycoprotein E (gE) mutants showing attributes consistent with increased virulence in vitro and in animal models, provided a possible molecular mechanism underlying a more aggressive virus infection. However, these mutants have never been associated with unusually severe clinical cases. OBJECTIVES: To varicella-zoster virus (VZV) mutations that correlate with increased virulence. RESULTS: We report a case of fatal hepatitis caused by a VZV bearing a novel mutation on the 3B3 monoclonal antibody epitope of gE in an immunocompetent host. CONCLUSIONS: This report describes a mutant VZV responsible for an aggressive clinical course in an immunocompetent host. Linking these severe clinical presentations of VZV infection to virus mutations might provide insights into the underlying pathogenic mechanisms.
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ranking = 1.2471101291303
keywords = varicella, zoster
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20/61. ganciclovir and the treatment of Epstein-Barr virus hepatitis.

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is part of the herpesvirus family that infects up to 90% of the population. Initial infection is often subclincal in children but will generally result in symptomatic infectious mononucleosis in adolescents and adults. ganciclovir has been utilized in immunocompromised patients with EBV encephalitis and post-liver transplant for EBV fulminant hepatitis. Herein, the successful use of ganciclovir in two immunocompetent patients with severe EBV hepatitis is reported.
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ranking = 0.39302366384054
keywords = herpes, herpesvirus, encephalitis
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