Cases reported "Hepatitis, Viral, Human"

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1/9. herpes simplex hepatitis in pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature.

    Fulminant hepatic dysfunction in the third trimester of pregnancy accompanied by fever may result from disseminated herpes simplex virus. Since 1969, 24 cases of herpes simplex hepatitis, including the current case, have been reported. Mucocutaneous lesions are present in only half of cases; therefore, suspicion for diagnosis of this disease is low. Twenty-five percent of cases were not diagnosed until autopsy. Maternal and perinatal mortality are high, approaching 39 percent for both mother and fetus. Early recognition with initiation of antiviral therapy appears to be most important in maximizing survival.
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2/9. Complications of measles during pregnancy.

    Twelve pregnant women and one woman who had just given birth were hospitalized with measles in Houston between 1988 and 1990. The most common and serious maternal complication was pneumonitis (seven patients). Other maternal complications included hepatitis (seven patients), premature labor (four patients), spontaneous abortion (one patient), and death (one patient). For four of 13 patients, all of whom had severe measles and pneumonitis due to measles virus, an adverse fetal outcome such as abortion or prematurity was associated with their conditions. Historical accounts describing maternal sequelae of measles have suggested more severe disease in pregnant women, although this observation has not always been confirmed by more recent reports in developed countries. The clinical course in our patients suggests that measles during pregnancy may be associated with serious complications.
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3/9. Clustering of different subtypes of hepatitis B surface antigen in families of patients with chronic liver diseases.

    Clustering of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with both subtypes adr and adw in three families of patients with chronic liver diseases or hepatocellular carcinoma was demonstrated in taiwan where adw is the main subtype. The subtype in the children was similar to that in their mothers, suggesting maternal transmission. In all the family units clustered with different subtypes, the same pattern occurred, invariably with fathers carrying HBsAg/adr and the children carrying HBsAg/adw. The subtype difference clearly rules out the transmission of hepatitis b virus (HBV) from father. Horizontal infection with the locally dominant adw-subtyped HBV in the children of fathers carrying HBsAg/adr explains the discrepancy of the subtypes in these families. Clustering of two HBsAg-positive brothers with hepatocellular carcinoma in one of the families was found. That both adr-subtyped and adw-subtyped HBV are capable of inducing chronic active hepatitis in another family suggests that host factors are probably more important in determining the clinical course of HBV infection.
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4/9. Viral hepatitis as a major cause of maternal mortality in Addis Ababa, ethiopia.

    Causes of maternal mortality were investigated in Addis Ababa, ethiopia, from September 1981 to September 1983. Viral hepatitis ranked third among the leading causes of maternal mortality behind septic abortion and puerperal sepsis. There were 26 deaths from viral hepatitis during the 2-year study period for a hospital maternal mortality rate of 91.0 per 100,000 live births. Although 30% of women who died of all maternal causes received antenatal care in Addis Ababa, only 13% of women who died from viral hepatitis in our hospital study received antenatal care. Low socio-economic status (SES) has been shown to be associated with low antenatal care utilization and with an increased risk of protein malnutrition. malnutrition is considered a predisposing factor for liver damage. Suggestions for reducing hepatitis transmission and maternal mortality through education, better hygiene, and improved sanitation are discussed.
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5/9. liver diseases in pregnancy.

    Mild abnormalities of liver function tests are frequently seen in pregnancy but return to normal after delivery. A raised serum alkaline phosphatase is common, along with a decline in the serum albumin, but the aminotransferases remain within normal limits. The physician must interpret abnormal liver function tests in pregnancy with these changes in mind, but most liver diseases in pregnancy result in more marked alterations. Viral hepatitis is the most common cause of jaundice in pregnancy, and the maternal prognosis is generally good. Perinatal transmission of hepatitis b virus is likely when the mother is positive for HBsAg. Concurrent administration of hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG to the infant has an efficacy of 90 per cent in preventing transmission to the infant. ICP is the second most common cause of jaundice in pregnancy. The condition is generally benign, although maternal and fetal mortality occasionally result, probably due to premature delivery and the bleeding tendency of cholestatic patients. Vitamin K administration may correct the coagulopathy, and cholestyramine is effective in controlling pruritus. AFLP is rare but carries a high mortality rate for both the mother and the fetus. early diagnosis, correction of the coagulopathy, and prompt delivery may improve the outcome significantly. patients with cirrhosis have reduced fertility, and in those who become pregnant, fetal loss is high. The effect of pregnancy or hepatocellular function is variable, but, when evidence of liver failure is present in the first trimester, termination should be considered. Variceal size and the risk of bleeding may be assessed by endoscopy. Pregnant cirrhotic patients with large esophageal varices and a history of bleeding can undergo shunt surgery. Conservative management may be appropriate for patients with small varices and no history of bleeding.
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6/9. Haemorrhage in neonatal hepatic necrosis due to herpes infection.

    A case of early neonatal severe bleeding and persistent hypoglycemia with a fatal outcome is reported. The autopsy examination revealed the features of neonatal hepatic necrosis. Further study by the electron microscopy indicated the presence of herpes type particles in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the remaining liver cells. Serological study of the maternal blood, post partum, revelaed positive reaction to herpes simplex virus type 2 at low titer. It is believed that intrauterine herpes infection was responsible for the severe hepatic damage manifesting in complex clinical findings.
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7/9. Disseminated herpes simplex virus infection during pregnancy. A case report.

    Hepatitis due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) developed in a pregnant women at 38 weeks' gestation. She delivered a live-born infant who had serologically documented HSV 2 infection but did well with acyclovir therapy. The mother, however, died five days postpartum from fulminant hepatic failure despite antiviral treatment, and HSV was demonstrated in the liver. Twenty-three reported cases clearly establish pregnancy as a condition that can predispose to disseminated HSV infection. The majority of cases have been due to HSV 2, and primary infection in the latter part of pregnancy appears to constitute the greatest risk. The major disease manifestations appear to be hepatitis and encephalitis. Historically, maternal and fetal mortality rates have been high, but there is a trend toward improved survival in the acyclovir era.
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8/9. herpes simplex hepatitis with chronic cholestasis in a newborn.

    In the case of the central nervous system or hepatic involvement, the prognosis of neonatal herpes simplex infection remains poor, despite antiviral drugs, presumably effective if given early. We report the case of a neonate with herpes simplex hepatitis, where the course of the illness was unusual with chronic, ultimately fatal, cholestasis. The treatment was not effective, because its administration was delayed, because of high infant C reactive protein level and the absence of clinical maternal genital infection, and because it was interrupted due to misleading information: clinical improvement, negative viral tests and raised herpes IgG antibody titer.
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9/9. Heterotopic auxiliary liver transplantation in a 3-year-old boy with acute liver failure and aplastic anemia.

    BACKGROUND: Auxiliary liver transplantation offers an alternative method to conventional transplantation in acute liver failure. It is especially challenging for children because lifelong immunosuppression may be avoided. However, experience with this procedure is rare and there is controversy about whether to place the graft orthotopically or heterotopically. methods: We present the case of a 3-year-old boy with acute liver failure due to non-ABC hepatitis complicated by aplastic anemia who underwent auxiliary liver transplantation. Segments 2 and 3 of the graft were implanted heterotopically in the right lower abdomen. RESULTS: Good liver function was immediately restored. Aplastic anemia resolved 3 weeks after transplantation. Immunosuppressive therapy was discontinued after 14 months, and the graft was left to atrophy. Thirty-nine months after transplantation the boy is alive and well with normal liver function tests and normal blood cell counts. CONCLUSIONS: Heterotopic auxiliary liver transplantation allowed recovery of the native liver in a child with acute liver failure and aplastic anemia due to non-ABC hepatitis.
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