Cases reported "Hepatitis"

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1/4. Report of a fatal case of dengue infection with hepatitis: demonstration of dengue antigens in hepatocytes and liver apoptosis.

    A fatal case of dengue (DEN) infection associated with a spleen rupture and with hepatitis is reported here. Microscopic studies showed numerous areas of spleen rupture with hematomas and revealed necrotic foci in liver samples obtained at autopsy. Although hepatitis was reported in several cases of DEN fever, the mechanism of liver injury remains poorly understood. In this case, immunohistochemistry showed that DEN viral antigens were mostly detected in hepatocytes surrounding the necrotic foci. By in situ detection of dna fragmentation, apoptotic hepatocytes were found to be colocated with DEN virus-infected hepatocytes. These findings suggest that hepatocytes are the major sites of DEN virus replication in the liver and that DEN virus induces apoptosis of hepatocytes in vivo.
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keywords = apoptosis
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2/4. Liver dysfunction due to apoptosis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    We report on a 23-year-old Japanese female with a 13-year history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and two episodes of deterioration followed by treatment with high dose prednisolone. Although she had been recently treated with prednisolone (12.5 mg daily), her liver function became worse in July 1998. Results of a liver biopsy revealed multi-focal hepatic cell death in a severe fatty liver, without any inflammatory cell invasion. The biopsy also showed a positive TUNEL (Tdt-catalysed DNA nick end labelling) reaction indicating apoptosis. Her liver function recovered rapidly following steroid pulse therapy. serum soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) was found to be elevated to a concentration of 0.395 ng/ml at the time of liver damage, but was less than 0.03 ng/ml before liver damage and after prednisolone treatment. The liver damage in this case appeared to be involved with apoptosis induced by sFasL. Although hepatitis associated with SLE is rare, apoptosis directly related to elevated sFasL levels might cause this complication.
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ranking = 1.4
keywords = apoptosis
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3/4. Fas/Apo1 mutations and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome in a patient with type 2 autoimmune hepatitis.

    Inherited mutations of the Fas/Apo1/CD95 gene, a cell-surface receptor involved in cell death signaling and in the control of self-reactivity, characterize the recently identified autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndromes. A patient with type 2 autoimmune hepatitis with the immunologic and genetic features of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome is described. The clinical picture was dominated by liver disease with hepatosplenomegaly and positivity for anti-liver-kidney microsome 1 and anti-liver-cytosol 1 antibodies. A marked increase in CD3 CD4-CD8-T lymphocytes and inherited mutations in Fas alleles that led to the expression of a soluble form of the protein were also found. Fas-mediated apoptosis was deficient in the patient as it was in her mother and her sister, who carried the same allele 2 mutation. This observation links type 2 autoimmune hepatitis, an organ-specific disease, with a genetically determined defect in peripheral tolerance control.
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keywords = apoptosis
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4/4. Expression of cytotoxic molecule TIA-1 in malignant lymphomas mimicking fulminant hepatitis.

    Involvement of malignant lymphoma in the liver inducing fulminant hepatic failure has rarely been reported. Therefore, a close association between some lymphoma types with severe liver damage and the mechanism underlying the liver damage is intriguing. Three malignant lymphoma cases, which were clinically diagnosed as fulminant hepatitis, were collected from the autopsy records of Kawasaki Medical School (Kurashiki, japan). All three cases were characterized by the presence of hepatosplenomegaly without superficial lymph node swelling, high elevation of transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; especially LDH-2), and a quite aggressive clinical course. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells in all three cases were positive for T cell intracellular antigen (TIA-1), which is a cytolytic protein in cytotoxic T and natural killer (NK) cells. The lymphomas were CD8 peripheral T cell lymphoma (case 1), CD56 T/NK cell lymphoma (case 2), and T cell lymphoma in a patient with mosquito hypersensitivity (case 3). Epstein-Barr virus infection was demonstrated on the tumor cells of cases 2 and 3 using an in situ hybridization method and those cases showed high titers of serum interferon-gamma and Fas. Frequent apoptosis of liver cells, where the lymphoma cells had infiltrated, was revealed by a terminal deoxyribosyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method. The findings in this study suggest that fulminant hepatic injury is closely associated with cytotoxic molecule TIA-1 expression of the lymphoma cells and that some specific mechanism may be involved in liver damage.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = apoptosis
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