Cases reported "Hepatitis"

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1/18. Idiopathic neonatal hepatitis associated with a fatal coagulopathy.

    Idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (INH) remains a diagnosis of exclusion in the neonate with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. The major diagnostic challenge for the clinician is to distinguish this condition from other treatable liver disorders such as biliary atresia. Although the prognosis varies for the familial and sporadic forms of neonatal hepatitis, a poor outcome is generally distinguished by chronic and progressive liver failure. After careful review of the literature, we were unable to find a case of INH associated with a profound, irreversible coagulopathy. Herein, we present a case with the primary presenting findings of persistent prolongation of the prothrombin time (PT) and hypofibrinogenemia, resulting in a catastrophic intracranial hemorrhage and death.
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2/18. alpha1-Antitrypsin deficiency and liver disease in children.

    This report describes the clinical, biochemical, and hepatic morphologic findings in ten children with severe serum alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Genetic protease inhibitor (Pi) phenotyping, using acid-starch gel and crossed antigen-antibody electrophoresis, demonstrated Pi phenotype ZZ in all our cases. In eight patients, manifestations of liver disease appeared during the first year of life. The case reports show that alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency should be suspected in any child with neonatal hepatitis, unexplained hepatomegaly or splenomegaly, or cirrhosis. In our report, one infant is normal at age 6 months, and one infant had progressive hepatic damage that culminated in liver failure and death at age 6 months. The variable clinical course and prognosis for infants with severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency is well illustrated by these two infants.
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3/18. Clinical features of non-Hodgkins lymphoma presenting with acute liver failure: a report of five cases and review of published experience.

    Hematological malignancies frequently affect the liver, but typically do not result in hepatic dysfunction and rarely present with advanced hepatic involvement. We report five patients who presented with advanced hepatic involvement and were found to have a high-grade lymphoma infiltrating the liver. Despite early diagnosis and initiation of therapy, all five patients deteriorated rapidly and died shortly after the onset of liver failure. Several similar cases have been reported. They share common clinical features, including hepatomegaly, lactic acidosis, and death shortly after the onset of symptoms. Non-Hodgkins lymphoma is a common malignancy, which is increasing in incidence. Non-Hodgkins lymphoma is not commonly entertained as an etiology of advanced liver failure and is likely underrecognized. In cases of acute advanced liver failure without an apparent etiology, especially if associated with hepatomegaly and lactic acidosis, lymphoma should be considered because of its poor prognosis and potential for treatment if recognized early. Liver biopsy is an invaluable tool that provides an early diagnosis while excluding other potential etiologies for acute advanced liver failure.
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4/18. Fate of infants with neonatal hepatitis: pediatric surgeons' dilemma.

    Thirty-five cases of neonatal hepatitis (20 males and 15 females) were reviewed, 3 of whom were lost during the follow-up, leaving 32 patients for review. There were 10 late deaths and 22 patients survived, 18 of whom with a normal bilirubin level and 4 with a bilirubin level of greater than 1.0 mg/dL. In the 18, jaundice disappeared between the ages of 4 and 7 months. The current lifestyles of the patients include 4 adults aged 19 to 21 who are either working or at university, while the other 18 children are all making good progress at school. Except for moderate growth retardation in 3 children, all are growing well. In all 10 patients who died, liver failure persisted until the time of death. Three died of other causes and 7 died of neonatal hepatitis itself between 4 months and 7 years of age. Four patients ran a fulminating course resulting in death between the ages of 4 and 12 months. All 7 had growth and developmental retardation. A histological examination showed that in those who died, there was significantly more periportal fibrosis, inflammation in the periportal area, and diffuse giant cell transformation. These results indicate that some infants with neonatal hepatitis have a poor prognosis and, therefore, the identification of such a condition requires a careful, long-term follow-up.
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5/18. Systemic cytomegalovirus infection complicating ulcerative colitis: a case report and review of the literature.

    cytomegalovirus is a common infection worldwide and in the immunocompromised individual it can be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In patients with inflammatory bowel disease cytomegalovirus infection has been described in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. A 34 year old man with an exacerbation of his colitis was diagnosed as having both cytomegalovirus colitis and hepatitis. The diagnosis was made on the classical appearance of "owl's eye" inclusion bodies on colonic and hepatic biopsies and, in addition, viral serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the cytomegalovirus dna copy number. Fourteen days of treatment with ganciclovir led to a prompt improvement in the symptoms of colitis, resolution of the pyrexia, normalisation of the liver function tests, and clearance of the virus, as measured by a negative cytomegalovirus dna PCR. cytomegalovirus infection is a potentially fatal complication of treatment induced immunosuppression in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. As in this case, infection may be systemic and not confined to the intestine. Prompt diagnosis using histology, serology, and PCR analysis allows prompt introduction of therapy and an improved prognosis.
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6/18. Clinical heterogeneity of neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency: case reports from 16 patients.

    A deficiency of citrin, which is encoded by the SLC25A13 gene, causes both adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2) and neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis (NICCD). We analyzed 16 patients with NICCD to clarify the clinical features of the disease. Severe intrahepatic cholestasis with fatty liver was the most common symptom, but the accompanying clinical features were variable, namely; suspected cases of neonatal hepatitis or biliary atresia, positive results from newborn screening, tyrosinemia, failure to thrive, hemolytic anemia, bleeding tendencies and ketotic hypoglycemia. Laboratory data showed elevated serum bile acid levels, hypoproteinemia, low levels of vitamin k-dependent coagulation factors, and hypergalactosemia. Hypercitrullinemia was detected in 11 out of 15 patients examined. Most of the patients were given a lactose-free and/or medium chain triglycerides-enriched formula and lipid-soluble vitamins. The prognosis of the 16 patients is going fairy well at present, but we should observe these patients carefully to see if they manifest any symptom of CTLN2 in the future.
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7/18. Bullous pemphigoid after liver transplantation for liver failure.

    Coomb's positive autoimmune hemolytic anemia with giant cell hepatitis (GCH) is a rare cause of liver failure and is usually associated with poor prognosis. A child with liver kidney microsomal (LKM) antibody positivity underwent successful liver transplantation for liver failure secondary to GCH with Coomb's positive hemolytic anemia. Autoimmune neutropenia developed ten months after transplant. Four months later, pemphigoid skin lesions developed. The diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid (BP) was made on the basis of skin biopsy, direct and indirect immunofluorescence test results. Treatment was with immunosuppressants - prednisone and azathioprine/rapamycin, with addition of dapsone when lesions persisted. This child is unique in that his liver function and hemolytic anemia appeared to normalize after liver transplant, but neutropenia and BP both thought to be autoimmune in etiology, developed more than a year post-transplant.
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8/18. Fulminant hepatitis: a clinical review of 11 years.

    24 cases of fulminant hepatitis (FH) hospitalized in the Clinica de Doencas Infecciosas e Parasitarias do Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo during the period from January 1976 to December 1986 were reviewed from their clinical, epidemiological and laboratorial aspects. 88% of the patients died; 20 patients (83%) presented hemorrhages and, of these, 19 died. bacterial infections occurred in 14 patients (58%) all of whom died. Ascitis was noted in 3 cases; cerebral edema was present in 16 cases. Maximal ALT levels for each patient during hospitalization ranged widely from 81 to 4,460 UI/l. Thirteen patients presented high creatinine levels (54%). prothrombin time activity ranged from 2.1% to 67%. Fever was present in 20 cases (83%). Encephalopathy occurred within the first 2 weeks of illness in 72% of the cases. In 7 cases other illnesses were present. The etiology could not be determined in 13 cases. In 3 cases it was due to yellow fever and 6 cases were caused by viruses other than yellow fever. In one case the cause was drug usage and in another case, possibly alcohol. The authors believe that the clinical definition of FH requires further discussion before it is established. In this study FH is a young person's disease. The mortality found was similar to that by other authors. Factors that contributed to death were: hemorrhages and bacterial infection. Factors that worsened the prognosis of hepatitis were: associated illnesses and surgical procedure. The levels of ALT during hospitalization did not correlate well with the severity of the hepatitis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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9/18. Neonatal hepatitis and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. The prognosis in five patients.

    Five patients with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZ) are reported. All these patients presented with the neonatal hepatitis syndrome and two fo them had developed cirrhosis at ages 5 and 8 years, respectively. Three patients, ages 1, 9 and 21 years, are asymptomatic. The oldest patient, 21 years of age, has only mild histologic changes in the liver. The prognosis for patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (PiZ) presenting with neonatal hepatitis is not necessarily grave, a finding that differs from previous observations.
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10/18. Anti-HBc IgM and anti-delta screening by EIA method.

    The clinical value of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of anti-HBc IgM was evaluated by testing 202 sera from acute viral hepatitis b (AVHB), hepatitis b (HB), chronic hepatitis (CAH), chronic liver disease (CLD), cirrhosis, primary hepatoma, HBsAg carrier, acute viral hepatitis A (AVHA), hepatitis a (HA), non-A, non-B (NANB) hepatitis and miscellaneous conditions other than hepatic disease, and 19 additional various hepatic disease cases were examined for anti-delta. In clinical situations the accurate diagnosis of HB is not always possible and the differential diagnosis seems to be very important especially in making decisions of treatment and estimation of prognosis. In overall cases the highest positive rate of anti-HBc IgM was found in AVHB as shown as 74.3% (26/35) comparing to other conditions in which the positive rate was extremely low (2.1%). The anti-HBc IgM appeared to be highly specific to AVHB (83.9%) as compared to the other. The positive rate of HBsAg was high in AVHB, CAH and HBsAg carrier (100.0%) followed by CLD, cirrhosis and HB (up to 70.8%). The ALT activities and ALPalb fractions were significantly high in AVHB (p less than 0.005). The correlation between the positivity of anti-HBc IgM and highly abnormal ALT appeared be high. AVHB was confined mostly to 10-20 age group and the male to female ratio was about 6 to 1. Subgroup of AVHB II with positive anti-HBc IgM appeared to have a greater chance being positive for HBsAg and ALPalb. The S/N ratio of anti-HBc IgM was as high as 20 which was unique to AVHB.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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