Cases reported "Hepatomegaly"

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1/132. neuroblastoma metastatic to the liver in infants.

    Four infants are described who presented with rapid enlargement of the liver. This was found to be due to neuroblastoma which had metastasized to the liver; the condition was associated with high levels of urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA). In 3 infants the primary tumour was in the adrenal gland and in one it was not identified. One infant died after laparotomy and 2 infants survive disease free with normal VMA levels, one after adrenalectomy and hepatic irradiation and one after a short course of chemotherapy. The fourth patient responded initially to hepatic irradiation and chemotherapy, but relapsed 2 years later with recurrent disease; at the same time the VMA level which had been normal, again rose. The importance of screening for an abnormal VMA level in any infant with a rapidly enlarging liver in order to obtain an early diagnosis is stressed. Careful follow-up, with serial VMA estimations, is essential to detect recurrent disease. The prognosis for some infants with this distribution of neuroblastoma which has metastasized to the liver, but not to the bones or oribt, is good.
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keywords = hepatic
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2/132. zidovudine-associated type B lactic acidosis and hepatic steatosis in an hiv-infected patient.

    A 34-year-old obese woman with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection diagnosed a year earlier was seen because of nausea, vomiting, and intermittent diarrhea for 3 weeks. Her current medications included zidovudine. physical examination revealed tachypnea and tender hepatomegaly. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed hepatomegaly with fatty infiltration. Liver enzymes were within normal range except for elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The serum bicarbonate value was low, with a lactate level three times normal. The tachypnea and dyspnea worsened as lactate concentrations rapidly increased to 15 times normal. Although her Po2 and cardiac index were initially adequate, the patient had acute respiratory failure. She died with multiorgan dysfunction, including hepatic failure, severe lactic acidemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and renal failure. autopsy revealed hepatomegaly and massive steatosis. physicians should consider lactic acidosis in patients taking zidovudine and having unexplained tachypnea, dyspnea, and low serum bicarbonate concentrations.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = hepatic
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3/132. A case of Schnitzler's syndrome with nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver.

    Schnitzler's syndrome is a rare condition of urticaria, macroglobulinemia, and sclerotic bone lesions. We report a case in a 70-year-old man in whom inflammatory polyarthralgia was followed by a nonpruritic urticarial eruption with a moderate decline in general health. Laboratory tests showed inflammation and a modest isolated peak of monoclonal IgM kappa. There was no evidence of waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Schnitzler's syndrome was considered. However, an ultrasound scan of the abdomen done because of mild gamma-glutamyl-transferase elevation disclosed multiple hepatic lesions. The liver histology showed incipient nodular regenerative hyperplasia. Only about 30 cases of Schnitzler's syndrome have been reported since the seminal description in 1972. Hepatic involvement was a common but nonspecific finding, and we found no cases with nodular regenerative hyperplasia. However, this abnormality is often found in patients with autoimmune or hematological disorders. The pathogenesis of Schnitzler's syndrome remains unknown, but the possibility of progression to a hematological malignancy requires prolonged follow-up.
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keywords = hepatic
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4/132. Biliary cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma: gray scale ultrasound appearance.

    The gray scale echographic appearance of biliary cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma is described. The characteristic findings are a cystic, multiloculated intrahepatic mass with thick, highly echogenic internal septations. Findings are similar to those in pancreatic and ovarian cystadenomas/cystadenocarcinomas.
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keywords = hepatic
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5/132. vitamin a toxicity secondary to excessive intake of yellow-green vegetables, liver and laver.

    We report a case of sudden onset of vitamin a poisoning. A 20-year-old Japanese woman had been eating pumpkin and only a very limited amount of other foods on a daily basis for 2 years. She was overly concerned about weight reduction. Aurantiasis cutis and abnormal liver function tests were noted by her family doctor in 1995 when she was 18 years old. At that time, she stopped eating pumpkin. However, she secretly continued an excessive intake of other beta-carotene-rich vegetables, liver and laver for about 2 years. Two and one-half years after being seen by her family physician, she experienced sudden onset of low-grade fever, limb edema, cheilitis, dry skin, and headache. These symptoms worsened daily. A liver needle biopsy was performed, and it showed a normal portal tract along with fat-laden Ito cells in the space of Disse. A final diagnosis of vitamin a poisoning and hepatic injury secondary to an eating disorder was made. Her symptoms and serum beta-carotene levels returned to normal with successful adjustment of her diet.
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keywords = hepatic
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6/132. Artificial abdominal hernia for the treatment of hepatomegaly in a neonate with stage 4S neuroblastoma.

    Surgical widening of the abdomen by a silastic pouch has been used very rarely in the management of critically ill infants with hepatomegaly due to neuroblastoma stage 4S. A female newborn baby was referred on the second day of life because of local compressive effects of a massive hepatomegaly, which lead to multiorgan failure. An artificial abdominal hernia was created on the third day of life using a silastic pouch. During the operation oxygenation and ventilation improved and urinary output returned. After chemotherapeutic reduction of hepatic metastases and primary tumor the pouch was successfully removed on day 57 without local complications. The child has survived for more than 1 year and is in complete remission. An artificial abdominal hernia should be considered more often in the critically ill neonate with stage 4S neuroblastoma and massive hepatomegaly.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = hepatic
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7/132. Hepatic capillariasis in children: report of 3 cases in brazil.

    capillaria hepatica is a helminth that may cause an extremely rare condition of parasitic hepatitis. Only 29 cases have been published, 2 of them in brazil. We report here 3 cases of children in brazil with massive hepatic capillariasis who presented the characteristic triad of this type of infection, i.e., persistent fever, hepatomegaly, and eosinophilia. The diagnosis was made by liver biopsy. All children responded well after treatment with thiabendazole (case 1), albendazole (case 3), and albendazole in combination with a corticoid (case 2). Case 1 has been followed-up for 24 years, an event not previously reported in the literature.
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keywords = hepatic
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8/132. Massive hepatic fibrosis in Gaucher's disease: clinico-pathological and radiological features.

    hepatomegaly is frequent in patients with type 1 Gaucher's disease and is associated with infiltration of the liver with pathological macrophages. Most patients suffer no significant clinical consequences, but a few develop portal hypertension which may progress to parenchymal liver failure. We describe four patients with Gaucher's disease who have developed portal hypertension. We have reviewed their clinical histories and all available histological and radiological material. All had severe Gaucher's disease with multi-organ involvement, and had undergone splenectomy in childhood. Histologically, this advanced liver disease was characterized by a picture of extreme and advanced confluent fibrosis occupying the central region of the liver. This massive fibrosis is associated with characteristic radiological appearances. The liver histology in these cases is highly unusual and virtually unknown in other conditions. Our studies indicate that without specific treatment the liver disease is progressive and rapidly fatal. However, institution of enzyme replacement therapy with imiglucerase may have beneficial effects even when the condition is far advanced.
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ranking = 2
keywords = hepatic
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9/132. alpha1-Antitrypsin deficiency and liver disease in children.

    This report describes the clinical, biochemical, and hepatic morphologic findings in ten children with severe serum alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Genetic protease inhibitor (Pi) phenotyping, using acid-starch gel and crossed antigen-antibody electrophoresis, demonstrated Pi phenotype ZZ in all our cases. In eight patients, manifestations of liver disease appeared during the first year of life. The case reports show that alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency should be suspected in any child with neonatal hepatitis, unexplained hepatomegaly or splenomegaly, or cirrhosis. In our report, one infant is normal at age 6 months, and one infant had progressive hepatic damage that culminated in liver failure and death at age 6 months. The variable clinical course and prognosis for infants with severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency is well illustrated by these two infants.
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ranking = 1
keywords = hepatic
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10/132. Congenital hepatic fibrosis in 3 siblings with phosphomannose isomerase deficiency.

    Congenital hepatic fibrosis is a rare disorder of intrahepatic bile ducts with the persistence of embryological bile duct structures in ductal plate configuration. Three siblings aged 18, 17 and 14 years old were found to have congenital hepatic fibrosis associated with a deficiency of the enzyme phosphomannose isomerase. The clinical symptoms were recurrent attacks of persistent vomiting with diarrhea and mild hepatomegaly. The biochemical abnormalities included elevated serum transferases during attacks, clotting factor deficiencies and persistent hypoalbuminemia. In the youngest patient protein-losing enteropathy was present. Liver biopsies of the three patients taken when they were 1, 3 and 14 years old showed an excess of bile duct structures in ductal plate configuration with mild fibrosis in the portal triads. In one patient the liver biopsy was repeated after 18 years and showed only a mild progression of fibrosis in the portal triads. Duodenal biopsies taken in infancy in two of the three patients did not show any abnormalities. Recognition of phosphomannose isomerase deficiency in association with congenital hepatic fibrosis and protein-losing enteropathy is important, because some of the clinical symptoms are potentially treatable by oral mannose therapy.
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ranking = 4
keywords = hepatic
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