Cases reported "Hepatomegaly"

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1/87. Encephalopathy associated with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis following rotavirus infection.

    A 2-year-old Japanese boy with a haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) associated encephalopathy which developed after rotavirus infection is described. The neurological symptoms consisted of coma, seizures and spastic quadriplegia. On therapy with steroids, etoposide and cyclosporin A, the patient recovered without any neurological deficits. The interferon-gamma levels in serum and CSF were elevated at onset of the disease but had returned to normal at the time of clinical remission. brain MRI revealed diffuse white matter abnormalities and parenchymal volume loss. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed elevated lactate in the abnormal lesions observed on MRI, indicating that macrophages not exhibiting aerobic metabolism had infiltrated the CNS. At the time of clinical remission, the white matter abnormalities and brain lactate had disappeared. These findings suggested that the neurological symptoms resulted from the overproduction of cytokines by activated T-cells and macrophages. The pathophysiology of a HLH associated encephalopathy was considered to be a local immune response within the CNS, because interferon-gamma can induce the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens on glial cells in the CNS. CONCLUSION: Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated encephalopathy should be considered early in the differential diagnosis of cases with acute onset neuropathy.
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2/87. neuroblastoma metastatic to the liver in infants.

    Four infants are described who presented with rapid enlargement of the liver. This was found to be due to neuroblastoma which had metastasized to the liver; the condition was associated with high levels of urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA). In 3 infants the primary tumour was in the adrenal gland and in one it was not identified. One infant died after laparotomy and 2 infants survive disease free with normal VMA levels, one after adrenalectomy and hepatic irradiation and one after a short course of chemotherapy. The fourth patient responded initially to hepatic irradiation and chemotherapy, but relapsed 2 years later with recurrent disease; at the same time the VMA level which had been normal, again rose. The importance of screening for an abnormal VMA level in any infant with a rapidly enlarging liver in order to obtain an early diagnosis is stressed. Careful follow-up, with serial VMA estimations, is essential to detect recurrent disease. The prognosis for some infants with this distribution of neuroblastoma which has metastasized to the liver, but not to the bones or oribt, is good.
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3/87. A case of Schnitzler's syndrome with nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver.

    Schnitzler's syndrome is a rare condition of urticaria, macroglobulinemia, and sclerotic bone lesions. We report a case in a 70-year-old man in whom inflammatory polyarthralgia was followed by a nonpruritic urticarial eruption with a moderate decline in general health. Laboratory tests showed inflammation and a modest isolated peak of monoclonal IgM kappa. There was no evidence of waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Schnitzler's syndrome was considered. However, an ultrasound scan of the abdomen done because of mild gamma-glutamyl-transferase elevation disclosed multiple hepatic lesions. The liver histology showed incipient nodular regenerative hyperplasia. Only about 30 cases of Schnitzler's syndrome have been reported since the seminal description in 1972. Hepatic involvement was a common but nonspecific finding, and we found no cases with nodular regenerative hyperplasia. However, this abnormality is often found in patients with autoimmune or hematological disorders. The pathogenesis of Schnitzler's syndrome remains unknown, but the possibility of progression to a hematological malignancy requires prolonged follow-up.
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4/87. Refractory congenital ascites as a manifestation of neonatal sialidosis: clinical, biochemical and morphological studies in a newborn Syrian male infant.

    A Syrian newborn with coarse facies, hepato-splenomegaly, and refractory ascites is reported. Examination of the ascitic fluid showed vacuolated lymphocytes and thin-layer chromatography of urinary oligosaccharides revealed an abnormal pattern indicative of sialidosis. Despite intensive care, the baby died of respiratory insufficiency 28 days after birth. In cultured skin fibroblasts an increase of the incorporation of [14C]methylamine pointed to excessive lysosomal storage and the demonstration of an isolated deficiency of alpha-N-acetylneuraminidase (sialidase) led to the diagnosis of a sialidosis. At postmortem examination, foam cells were found mostly in bone marrow, liver, and brain. To date very few cases of neonatal sialidosis have been reported, and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first child with neonatal sialidosis from syria and the first case of neonatal sialidosis studied by the [14C]methylamine incorporation assay.
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5/87. Improvement of amyloid-related symptoms after autologous stem cell transplantation in a patient with hepatomegaly, macroglossia and purpura.

    AL amyloidosis was diagnosed in a 56-year-old woman with spontaneous purpura, macroglossia and hepatomegaly, a serum IgGk monoclonal gammopathy and a 25% plasma cell bone marrow infiltration. She was started on high-dose treatment consisting of four monthly cycles of VID chemotherapy, then underwent a stem cell collection after priming with cyclophosphamide G-CSF. Myeloablative therapy was with melphalan and busulfan. Hematologic recovery was fast and uncomplicated. At follow-up 22 months from ASCT, the patient shows a complete remission of the clonal plasma cell disorder, normalization of liver size and alkaline phosphatase level and a significant improvement in the signs of vascular and soft tissue amyloid infiltration.
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6/87. Altered erythropoiesis and increased hemolysis in hemoglobin m Akita (M Hyde Park beta92 His replaced by Tyr) disease.

    Hb M Akita disease is a cyanotic hemoglobinopathy found in Akita Prefecture, japan. The abnormal hemoglobin was found to be the same as Hb M Hyde Park (beta92 His replaced by Tyr) by chemical analysis in 1967. In this disease signs of accelerated hemolysis (serum bilirubin, 2.4 mg/dl; splenomegaly, 2 finger breadths; Hb, 10.7 g/dl; reticulocyte index, 2.7) were noted, but the causes of its slight anemia were revealed to be fairly complex by ferrokinetic study, RBC life-span measurement, and 99mTc myeloscintigram. The anemia in this disease is caused not only by shortened erythrocyte survival (T 1/2 = 11.5 days by 51Cr-tagging method) and sequestration of red cells in the spleen (spleen: liver ratio = 2.5 approximately 3.0 by 51Cr-surface counting), but also by slow supply of erythrocytes to the peripheral blood from the bone marrow, presumably, related to the existence of unstable Hb M Akita and its derivative (Hb Akita) in the erythroid cells. Both Carrell's isopropanol test and Heinz body formation test were positive. In spite of maximally increased total erythropoiesis (8 times as high as the normal level; M:E ratio = 0.22:1.0), supply of red cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood was significantly decreased. The distribution of hematopoietic sites throughout the body was reasonably uniform.
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7/87. Hepatosplenomegalic lipidosis: what unless Gaucher? adult cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) with anemia, mesenteric lipodystrophy, increased plasma chitotriosidase activity and a homozygous lysosomal acid lipase -1 exon 8 splice junction mutation.

    A 36-year-old woman was admitted for hepatosplenomegaly and anemia. Bone marrow cytology showed "sea-blue histiocytes", vacuolated macrophages and plasma cells. As primary liver disease, malignancy or hematologic disorders were excluded, and plasma chitotriosidase activity was increased 27-fold over control, the presence of a lysosomal storage disease was suspected. Biochemical analysis of skin fibroblasts revealed normal glucocerebrosidase and sphingomyelinase activity, but lipid analysis showed a more than 15-fold accumulation of cholesterol esters within the cells. The activity of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) in fibroblast homogenates was decreased to 12% of control subjects. Mutational analysis of the patient's blood showed the homozygous G-->A mutation at position -1 of the exon 8 splice donor site (E8SJM-allele) known for adult cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD); the polymorphic background was that of the complex haplotype -6Thr, 2Gly, 894 G-->A. Based on clinical, laboratory, cytological and and biochemical findings, CESD can clearly be separated from other more frequent inherited lysosomal storage diseases, e.g. atypical forms of gaucher disease.
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8/87. Massive hepatic fibrosis in Gaucher's disease: clinico-pathological and radiological features.

    hepatomegaly is frequent in patients with type 1 Gaucher's disease and is associated with infiltration of the liver with pathological macrophages. Most patients suffer no significant clinical consequences, but a few develop portal hypertension which may progress to parenchymal liver failure. We describe four patients with Gaucher's disease who have developed portal hypertension. We have reviewed their clinical histories and all available histological and radiological material. All had severe Gaucher's disease with multi-organ involvement, and had undergone splenectomy in childhood. Histologically, this advanced liver disease was characterized by a picture of extreme and advanced confluent fibrosis occupying the central region of the liver. This massive fibrosis is associated with characteristic radiological appearances. The liver histology in these cases is highly unusual and virtually unknown in other conditions. Our studies indicate that without specific treatment the liver disease is progressive and rapidly fatal. However, institution of enzyme replacement therapy with imiglucerase may have beneficial effects even when the condition is far advanced.
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9/87. Histologic transformation of follicular lymphoma after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    A 38-year-old man with refractory follicular lymphoma underwent allogeneic BMT from an HLA-identical sibling donor. He had generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphoma infiltration of the marrow, all of which disappeared within 3 months following transplantation. Six months post-transplant, progressive hepatomegaly developed in the absence of splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, and he died from hepatic failure. autopsy disclosed diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the liver, into which the follicular lymphoma had transformed. Future issues to be investigated should include the optimal timing of allogeneic BMT for low-grade lymphomas.
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ranking = 0.01144808200509
keywords = bone
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10/87. Disseminated histoplasmosis with reactive hemophagocytosis: aspiration cytology findings in two cases.

    Two cases of disseminated histoplasmosis associated with reactive hemophagocytic syndrome are described. The clinical presentation was with prolonged unexplained fever and hepatosplenomegaly. On a strong clinical possibility of tuberculosis, antitubercular treatment was initiated in both patients. Lymph node (case 1), splenic (case 2), and bone marrow aspiration, however, showed sheets of proliferating histiocytes, and intracellular and extracellular histoplasma organisms. Aspiration cytology was thus valuable in establishing the final diagnosis. The patients had a fulminant clinical course and died of hemorrhagic shock within 48 hr of hospital admission before specific therapy could be initiated. histoplasmosis can mimic tuberculosis clinically. There is a need for an increased awareness of the clinicopathological spectrum of histoplasmosis, especially its rarer manifestations as hemophagocytic syndrome. In suspected cases, aspirations from the lymph node, liver, and spleen can be performed safely and should be utilized for early diagnosis.
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