Cases reported "Hernia, Diaphragmatic"

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1/123. Bochdalek hernia in adulthood: a case report and review of recent literature.

    A 37-year-old Filipino woman presented with a post road-traffic accident fracture of dorsal spine 12. Chest radiograph revealed evidence of loops of small bowel in the left lung field. She admitted to symptoms of respiratory insufficiency since birth and treatment for tuberculosis in childhood. A pre-operative diagnosis of left traumatic diaphragmatic hernia was not confirmed at laparotomy which revealed typical left congenital Bochdalek hernia with smooth edges and herniation of small bowel and spleen into the left pleural cavity. Following reduction and repair of the hernia, the patient made an uneventful recovery. Chest radiograph remains normal till now, eight years post-operatively.
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2/123. Dypiridamole, a cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, transiently improves the response to inhaled nitric oxide in two newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    INTRODUCTION: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) remains a frustrating cause of respiratory failure associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Although inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is effective in many infants with PPHN, it often fails to improve oxygenation in infants with CDH. As the increase in vascular smooth muscle cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in response to iNO may be impeded by increased phosphodiesterase type-V (PDE-V) activity, it has been suggested that PDE-V blockade potentiates the efficiency of iNO. case reports: We used dypiridamole (Persantine), a specific PDE-V inhibitor, in two patients with CDH. prenatal diagnosis showed a left-sided CDH at 23 weeks of gestation (GA) with intrathoracic stomach and left heart underdevelopment in the one infant and a right-sided CDH at 26 weeks GA with intrathoracic liver in the other. After antenatal corticoids, planned delivery was performed by the vaginal route at 38 weeks GA. Preoperative stabilization was achieved by high frequency oscillation, iNO and inotropic support over 24 h. Both had early pneumothorax drained by a chest tube. Despite optimization of ventilatory and hemodynamic support with surfactant replacement, iNO and adrenaline, oxygenation worsened progressively. Dypiridamole was introduced intravenously at 27 and 40 h, respectively, and improved oxygenation over the next 12 h. However, oxygenation again deteriorated and both patients died. CONCLUSION: Dypiridamole enhanced the response to iNO in PPHN associated with CDH, although this effect was transient. Combined therapy of iNO with PDE-V inhibitors may improve pulmonary vasodilation in some forms of PPHN which do not respond to iNO, thereby reducing the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and improving outcome.
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3/123. Ruptured hemidiaphragm after bilateral lung transplantation.

    A case of right hemidiaphragm rupture and abdominal herniation into the thorax occurring during the immediate post-operative course of double-lung transplantation is reported. This complication has not been reported previously. We examine the possible aetiology and suggest that the direct cause could be an increase in intra-abdominal pressure during chest physiotherapy.
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4/123. Excision of spinal tumor in a patient with severe pulmonary dysfunction using combined spinal and epidural anesthesia with two epidural catheters.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Combined spinal and epidural anesthesia (CSEA) has become common practice. We performed CSEA using two epidural catheters in a 69-year-old female with severe pulmonary dysfunction caused by a diaphragmatic hernia, who underwent surgical excision of a lumbar spinal tumor. methods: Combined spinal and epidural anesthesia was performed using two epidural catheters to minimize postoperative pulmonary complications. One epidural catheter was inserted above the surgical region, at the T11-12 interspace, and another one below the surgical region, via the sacral hiatus. Spinal anesthesia was produced using the L5-S1 interspace and 3 mL 0.5% bupivacaine. Oxygen, 3 L/min, was administered through a face mask during surgery. RESULTS: Fifteen minutes after spinal anesthesia, analgesic level was confirmed below T7 using the pinprick method. The patient complained of pain in the surgical region 10 minutes after the dura mater was opened. We injected 5 mL 2% mepivacaine through the upper epidural catheter to relieve the pain. We also injected 10 mL 2% mepivacaine through the lower catheter when she felt pain in the right leg. The perioperative course was uneventful. Oxygen saturation was maintained above 95%. CONCLUSIONS: Combined spinal and epidural anesthesia using two epidural catheters was used successfully to excise a spinal tumor in a patient with severe pulmonary dysfunction.
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5/123. Diaphragmatic hernia seen as a late complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Laparoscopic surgery has emerged as the standard of care for the elective operative management of symptomatic gallbladder disease. The surgical literature is now beginning to accumulate sufficient case numbers that more clearly define the associated morbidity of this type of surgery. This article reports an instance of iatrogenic injury to the right muscular hemidiaphragm and subsequent hernia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
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6/123. adult presentation of agenesis of the hemidiaphragm.

    A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3-day history of classical features of large bowel obstruction. At emergency laparotomy, the transverse colon and splenic flexure were located in the left hemithorax. The entire left hemidiaphragm was absent, and there were no diaphragmatic remnants visible. This is the oldest reported case of an absent hemidiaphragm. Previous cases of "agenesis" of the hemidiaphragm in adults either reported diaphragmatic remnants intraoperatively or failed to rule them out radiologically when managed conservatively. We would suggest that this is the first reported case of an adult presenting with true agenesis of the hemidiaphragm.
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7/123. Strangulated traumatic hernia of the diaphragm. A report of two cases.

    The herniation of abdominal viscera in the thorax can immediately follow diaphragmatic rupture or be delayed even years after the injury. The herniated viscera can strangulate; this consequence may lead to a dangerous misdiagnosis which could be lethal for the patient. Radiological procedures, serial chest X-ray studies, CT and MRI scans are mandatory to confirm diagnosis. The insertion of a naso-gastric tube is a very helpful method in ruling out hypertensive pneumothorax in the presence of an air-fluid level in the thorax. We report 2 cases of strangulated traumatic hernia of the diaphragm occurring just a few hours (case 1) and 18 months (case 2) after the trauma. During thoracotomy, a rupture of the left diaphragmatic cupola was demonstrated with herniation of the stomach in case 1, the stomach, spleen and transverse colon in case 2. No postoperative mortality or morbidity were detected.
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8/123. Diaphragmatic Morgagni hernia in adulthood: correct preoperative diagnosis is possible with newer imaging techniques.

    Morgagni hernia is a rare type of diaphragmatic hernia. It is frequently associated with elusive clinical and radiological findings in the adult and consequently, diagnosis and appropriate therapy are usually delayed. We describe a case in which a Morgagni hernia presented as a right sided cardiophrenic mass on a routine chest X-ray. The diaphragmatic defect was further confirmed by computed tomography (CT), by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest. The defect was closed by a prolene mesh.
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9/123. hernia of foramen of Morgagni in adult: case report of laparoscopic repair.

    The videolaparoscopic repair of a diaphragmatic hernia of Morgagni by external knot tying technique is described. A 69-year-old woman with subocclusive symptoms by intrathoracic migration of abdominal viscera had an immediate and complete postoperative recovery. The hernial sac was not excised. A four-year follow-up shows no hernia recurrence. This case indicated that the laparoscopic approach can be considered a suitable and safe procedure for treatment of Morgagni's hernia.
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10/123. Split cord malformation with partial eventration of the diaphragm. Case report.

    The authors describe the case of a 3-year-old girl who presented with a dorsal split cord malformation (SCM) and was found to have eventration of the diaphragm. Although the child did not undergo surgery for eventration, its presence suggests a need for careful preoperative planning and clinical evaluation to rule out or confirm the anomalies associated with spinal dysraphism or SCM.
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