Cases reported "Hernia, Diaphragmatic"

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1/26. Diaphragmatic hernia of Morgagni.

    Most cases of Morgagni hernia are asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally on routine chest x-ray film, but they may occasionally become symptomatic. Symptomatic Morgagni hernias may present in many different ways, making the diagnosis challenging. We describe a patient with a Morgagni hernia, resulting in intractable nausea and vomiting, give a brief review of symptoms, note the different types of abdominal contents herniated, and describe the methods used to make the diagnosis.
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2/26. Intrapulmonary ectopic liver.

    A case of intrapulmonary ectopic liver in a patient who had undergone right-sided diaphragmatic hernia is described. The intrapulmonary ectopic liver was found incidentally in chest x-ray at the age of 6 years. The final diagnosis was established at thoracotomy. Fewer than 10 cases of intrathoracic ectopic liver have been reported previously, but an intrapulmonary ectopic liver like the present case has not been described previously.
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3/26. Late presentation of Bochdalek hernia: clinical and radiological aspects.

    Three infants with late presentation of Bochdalek hernia are presented. The presenting symptoms were cough, intermittent vomiting, dyspnea, and cyanosis. Initial diagnoses of isolated paravertebral mass and foreign material aspiration were made in two infants, based on plain chest x-ray findings and history of the patients. Further radiological investigations, such as contrast upper gastrointestinal series or enema, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging of the chest, suggested the diagnosis of Bochdalek hernia. The hernia was found on the left side in two patients and on the right side in one. At operation, the stomach, small intestine, and spleen were found as herniated organs in one patient, ascending colon in one, and all of the small intestine together with ascending colon in the other. A congenital diaphragmatic defect should be suspected in every child presenting with unusual respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms and with abnormal chest x-ray findings. The radiological findings vary greatly from one case to another, and even in the same case at different times because of differences in herniated organs and intermittent spontaneous reduction. The possibility of congenital diaphragmatic hernia should be kept in mind to avoid a wrong diagnosis, undue delay in diagnosis, and inappropriate treatment.
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4/26. An unusual anterior mediastinal mass in a child with B-thalassemia major.

    This case report describes the delayed appearance of Morgagni's hernia in a 5 year old child with B-thalassemia major to present as an anterior mediastinal mass. The progressive enlargement of the liver resulted in herniation of the left lobe of the liver through the already congenitally present Morgagni's hernia leading to its enlargement. The report also emphasizes the fact that a previously normal chest x-ray should not preclude the diagnosis of Morgagni's hernia. Morgagni's hernia should also be included in the differential diagnosis of anterior mediastinal masses in children.
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5/26. Thoracoscopic treatment for delayed presentation of congenital diaphragmatic hernia in the infant. A report of three cases.

    BACKGROUND: Delayed presentations of congenital hernia occurring outside of the neonatal period have been reported for all ages. Classically, repair of the hernia defect involves a transverse subcostal laparotomy in the pediatric age group and usually a thoracotomy in the adult. The first report describing a laparoscopic repair of a congenital diaphragmatic hernia in a 6-month-old infant was published in 1995. During the past 25 years, 17 patients with delayed presentation of congenital diaphragmatic hernias have been managed by our pediatric surgery team. The last three patients underwent surgery thoracoscopically. patients and methods: This study involved two boys (ages, 8.3 and 19 months, respectively) and one girl (age, 9 months) weighing 8 to 13 kg. All three infants underwent surgery using a thoracoscopic approach with general anesthesia. A thoracic epidural catheter was placed systematically for postoperative analgesia during the first 24 hours. Reduction of the hernia contents using one optical trocar and two operating trocars was difficult in the case without any hernia sac. In the cases with a hernia sac, reduction was easily and quickly obtained with a pleural insufflation of carbon dioxide (~8 mmHg). The hernia defect was repaired using interrupted sutures of 2/0 Ethibond. For two of the three patients, this repair was reinforced with staples in the one case and a nonresorbable mesh in the other case. RESULTS: The mean operative time was 78 min. The chest tube was removed on the first or second postoperative day and the patients were discharged on the fourth or fifth postoperative day. At the 19-month follow-up assessment in one case, the chest x-ray was perfectly normal and diaphragmatic motion also was confirmed to be normal by ultrasonography. CONCLUSIONS: The thoracoscopic approach for the repair of delayed-presentation congenital diaphragmatic hernia is feasible. Our results demonstrate the safety and efficiency of this surgery, as well as a remarkable functional and cosmetic result and a very quick recovery.
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6/26. Delayed presentation of bilateral Morgagni's hernia in a child with Down's syndrome.

    This case report describes the delayed presentation of bilateral Morgagni's hernia in a 13-month-old girl with Down's syndrome. The report emphasizes the fact that a previously normal chest x-ray should not preclude the diagnosis of Morgagni's hernia even when bilateral. The various presentations and the association between Morgagni's hernia and Down's syndrome are also discussed.
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7/26. Repair of diaphragmatic rupture by laparoscopic implantation of a polytetrafluoroethylene patch.

    Diaphragmatic hernias after blunt traumatic damage are serious complications, and diagnosis often might be delayed. In most cases, early symptoms are missed, but in the further posttraumatic period, patients experience recurrence of pulmonary dysfunction or intestinal symptoms such as obstruction, nausea, and pain. Most of these defects are diagnosed by laparotomy performed to investigate other major abdominal lesions. These diaphragmatic ruptures are managed by suturing using a thoracic or abdominal approach. An original diaphragmatic repair technique using a patch is presented. A 40-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic because of chronic abdominal pain. Chest x-ray and computed tomography scan showed a migration of the large intestine into the left hemithorax. A large diaphragmatic hernia was diagnosed and repaired laparoscopically using a patch. In the reported patient, laparoscopic suture of a diaphragmatic hernia using a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (GORETEX) patch proved to be safe, successful, elegant, and uneventful.
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8/26. Congenital left posterolateral diaphragmatic hernia with previously normal chest x-ray.

    Three patients who presented with left congenital posterolateral diaphragmatic hernia at the ages of six months, two years and six years and who had a normal chest x-ray earlier in life are reported. In two children the late onset of symptoms and previously normal radiographic appearance might be explained by the spleen acting as a plug in the diaphragmatic defect. A normal chest x-ray in early infancy does not exclude the diagnosis of congenital posterolateral diaphragmatic hernia.
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9/26. Morgagni's hernia.

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernias, including Morgagni s hernia, usually present in early childhood and are treated by surgical repair. This case report is about an unusual Morgagni s hernia, presenting with dyspepsia and chest pain, at the age of 45 years. For many years the diagnosis remained a dilemma because patient s chest x-ray was not done and she was treated for "angina " and "dyspepsia". diagnosis was obvious once a chest x-ray was done, however, barium studies were performed for further confirmation.
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10/26. Right-sided diaphragmatic hernia following group B streptococcal pneumonia and sepsis.

    A case of right-sided diaphragmatic hernia following group B streptococcal pneumonia and sepsis is reported herein. The clinical course was characteristic. The position of the right hemidiaphragm was initially normal. After an antecedent group B streptococcal infection, an abnormal shadow indicating either pneumonia or a pleural effusion on the chest x-ray was recognized and an elevation of the bowel and liver into the right hemithorax gradually appeared. Repair of the hernia was indicated and the postoperative result was excellent. The relationship between a delayed-onset diaphragmatic hernia and a group B streptococcal infection is still unknown. Increased intrathoracic pressure caused by mechanical ventilation coupled with an abnormal lung compliance due to inflammation may have resulted in the delayed herniation. Among various methods for diagnosis applied, chest x-ray and ultrasonography were noninvasive and useful.
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